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[0] Rasch B, Gais S, Born J, Impaired Off-Line Consolidation of Motor Memories After Combined Blockade of Cholinergic Receptors During REM Sleep-Rich Sleep.Neuropsychopharmacology no Volume no Issue no Pages (2009 Feb 4)

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ref: Rasch-2009.04 tags: REM learning procedural memory sleep spindles date: 03-23-2009 18:32 gmt revision:3 [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-18836440[0] Pharmacological REM sleep suppression paradoxically improves rather than impairs skill memory

  • surpressed REM sleep with SSRIs or norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor
    • yet tested the subjects after a long wash-out: 32 hours, including 2 nights sleep.
  • did not impair word-pair recognition, and improved finger tapping accuracy.
  • sleep spindles are a feature of non-REM sleep.
  • REM sleep is characterized by an abscence of serotonin and norepinephrine; SSRIs and SNRIs increase the levels of these two neurotransmitters, respectively, at the synaptic cleft.
  • clinical studies of depressed patients show no impairment of skill performance during long-term treatment with these drugs, despite marked REM supression
  • did mirror-tracing and finger-tapping tasks.
  • SSRI supressed REM sleep; SNRI almost completely removed REM.
  • treatment increased accuracy of finger tapping task! esp. for the SNRI.
    • increase in accuracy was positively correlated to the change in spindle density.
  • For the mirror task, there were notable improvements after sleep, but no significant difference between placebo, SSRI, and SNRI groups.
  • paired-word retention task has been shown dependent on SWS; it was not affected by pharmacology.
  • They suggest that perhaps SSRI /SNRI supressed simply the typical measures of REM sleep, and that other factors critical for the associated consolidation were unaffected (e.g. high cholinergic activity).
  • result is consistent with [1]

____References____

[0] Rasch B, Pommer J, Diekelmann S, Born J, Pharmacological REM sleep suppression paradoxically improves rather than impairs skill memory.Nat Neurosci no Volume no Issue no Pages (2008 Oct 5)
[1] Tamaki M, Matsuoka T, Nittono H, Hori T, Fast sleep spindle (13-15 hz) activity correlates with sleep-dependent improvement in visuomotor performance.Sleep 31:2, 204-11 (2008 Feb 1)

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ref: Rasch-2009.06 tags: sleep cholinergic acetylcholine REM motor consolidation date: 02-18-2009 17:27 gmt revision:0 [head]

PMID-19194375[0] "Impaired Off-Line Consolidation of Motor Memories After Combined Blockade of Cholinergic Receptors During REM Sleep-Rich Sleep."

  • In REM sleep there is high, almost to wake-like, levels of ACh activity (in the cortex? they don't say).
  • Trained subjects on a motor task after a 3-hour period of slow wave sleep.
  • Then administered ACh (muscarinic + nicotinic) blockers or placebo
  • Subjects with blocked ACh reception showed less motor consolidation. So, ACh is needed! (This is consistent with Ach being an attentional / selective signal for activating the cortex).

____References____