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ref: -1977 tags: polyethylene surface treatment plasma electron irradiation mechanical testing saline seawater accelerated lifetime date: 04-15-2017 06:06 gmt revision:0 [head]

Enhancement of resistance of polyethylene to seawater-promoted degradation by surface modification

  • Polyethylene, when repeatedly stressed and exposed to seawater (e.g. ships' ropes), undergoes mechanical and chemical degradation.
  • Surface treatments of the polyethlyene can improve resistance to this degradation.
  • The author studied two methods of surface treatment:
    • Plasma (glow discharge, air) followed by diacid (adipic acid) or triisocyanate (DM100, = ?) co-polymerization
    • Electron irradiation with 500 kEV electrons.
  • Also mention CASING (crosslinking by activated species of inert gasses) as a popular method of surface treatment.
    • Diffuse-in crosslinkers is a third, popular these days ...
    • Others diffuse in at temperature e.g. a fatty acid - derived molecule, which is then bonded to e.g. heparin to reduce the thrombogenicity of a plastic.
  • Measured surface modifications via ATR IR (attenuated total reflectance, IR) and ESCA (aka XPS)
    • Expected results, carbonyl following the air glow discharge ...
  • Results:
    • Triisocyanate, ~ 6x improvement
    • diacid, ~ 50 x improvement.
    • electron irradiation, no apparent degradation!
      • Author's opinion that this is due to carbon-carbon crosslink leading to mechanical toughening (hmm, evidence?)
  • Quote: since the PE formulation studied here was low-weight, it was expected to lose crystallinity upon cyclic flexing; high density PE's have in fact been observed to become more crystalline with working.
    • Very interesting, kinda like copper. This could definitely be put to good use.
  • Low density polyethylene has greater chain branching and entanglement than high-density resins; when stressed the crystallites are diminished in total bulk, degrading tensile properties ... for high-density resins, mechanical working loosens up the structure enough to allow new crystallization to exceed stress-induced shrinkage of crystallites; hence, the crystallinity increases.

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ref: -0 tags: polyimide aging deadhesion humidity water absorption date: 06-28-2013 02:07 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

Environmental Aging and Deadhesion of Polyimide Dielectric films

  • At 35C, 85% RH (not immersion!) there was little degradation in the polyimide to 2000 hours.
  • Suggest chromium or titanium as an adhesion promoter & to prevent copper from diffusing into the polyimide.
  • Plasma treatment of polyimide is commonly used prior to metal deposition in order to improve adhesion of polyimide to metallization [20].
    • Clearfield, Furman, Callegari 1994 "The Role of Physical and Chemical Structure in the Long-term Durability of Metal/Polyimide Interfaces" International Journal of Microcircuits and electronic Packaging 17(3), pp. 228-35.

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ref: Seymour-2009.1 tags: Parylene MEA biocompatibility pin hole water saturation PPX date: 01-25-2013 01:19 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

PMID-19703712[0] The insulation performance of reactive parylene films in implantable electronic devices.

  • Describe the development and testing of a superior form of parylene: poly(p-xylylene) functionalized with reactive group X (PPX-X)
  • Heat-treated PPX-X device impedance was 800% greater at 10kHz and 70% greater at 1Hz relative to heated parylene-C controls after 60 days (in saline).
  • Better wet attachment to the metal.

____References____

[0] Seymour JP, Elkasabi YM, Chen HY, Lahann J, Kipke DR, The insulation performance of reactive parylene films in implantable electronic devices.Biomaterials 30:31, 6158-67 (2009 Oct)

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ref: notes-0 tags: energy carbon CO2 hot water heater. date: 02-25-2008 23:36 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

How much carbon dioxide (CO2) is released to heat the water for a 5-minute shower?

  1. assumptions
    1. water enters your house at 45F, and you heat it to 100F.
    2. the energy efficiency of your hot water heater is 87%, and we ignore the cost of static thermal losses.
    3. you live in the southeast like me, which is predominantly powered by coal-fired plants. These plants release about 0.8kg/kwh of CO2 ref
    4. transmission of energy from the power plant to your home is 90% efficient
    5. you have a shower head that flows at a rate of 2.2 gallons/minute
  2. result: 2.2gpm -> 138.6 ml/sec -> * 31C temp rise -> 4.2kw -> 0.31kg CO2.
    1. that's about equivalent of driving 4 miles in a 30mpg car. (gasoline CO2 release = 2.4kg/gallon)

  • Interesting analysis. I'm surprised how much CO2 is used by those 5-minutes of delicious, delicious hot shower! --joeyo

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ref: bookmark-0 tags: Saab water injection neuralnet 900 turbo date: 10-15-2007 16:09 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

Self-learning fuzzy neural network with optimal on-line leaning for water injection control of a turbocharged automobile.

  • for a 1994 - 1998 Saab 900 SE (like mine).
  • also has details on the trionic 5 ECU, including how saab detects knock through pre-ignition ionization measurement, and how it subsequently modifies ignition timing & boost pressure.
  • images/467_1.pdf