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[0] Carmena JM, Lebedev MA, Crist RE, O'Doherty JE, Santucci DM, Dimitrov DF, Patil PG, Henriquez CS, Nicolelis MA, Learning to control a brain-machine interface for reaching and grasping by primates.PLoS Biol 1:2, E42 (2003 Nov)

[0] Wessberg J, Stambaugh CR, Kralik JD, Beck PD, Laubach M, Chapin JK, Kim J, Biggs SJ, Srinivasan MA, Nicolelis MA, Real-time prediction of hand trajectory by ensembles of cortical neurons in primates.Nature 408:6810, 361-5 (2000 Nov 16)

[0] Nicolelis MA, Dimitrov D, Carmena JM, Crist R, Lehew G, Kralik JD, Wise SP, Chronic, multisite, multielectrode recordings in macaque monkeys.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:19, 11041-6 (2003 Sep 16)

[0] Carmena JM, Lebedev MA, Henriquez CS, Nicolelis MA, Stable ensemble performance with single-neuron variability during reaching movements in primates.J Neurosci 25:46, 10712-6 (2005 Nov 16)

[0] Sanchez J, Principe J, Carmena J, Lebedev M, Nicolelis MA, Simultaneus prediction of four kinematic variables for a brain-machine interface using a single recurrent neural network.Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 7no Issue 5321-4 (2004)

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ref: Freire-2011.01 tags: Nicolelis BMI electrodes immune respones immunohistochemistry chronic arrays rats 2011 MEA histology date: 06-29-2012 01:20 gmt revision:5 [4] [3] [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-22096594[0] Comprehensive analysis of tissue preservation and recording quality from chronic multielectrode implants.

  • Says what might be expected: tungsten microelectrode arrays work, though the quality gradually declines over 6 months.
  • Histological markers correlated well with recording performance.
  • Shows persistent glial activation around electrode sites + cell body hypertropy.
    • Suggest that loss in recording quality may be due to glial encapsulation.
  • References
    • Szarowski et al 2003 {1028}
    • Ward et al 2009
  • Histology:
    • NADPH-d: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase, via beta-NADP
    • CO: cytochrome oxidase, via diamnibenzidine DAB, cytochrome c and catalase.
      • both good for staining cortical layers; applied in a standard buffered solution and monitored to prevent overstaining.
  • Immunohistochemistry:
    • Activated microglia with ED-1 antibody.
    • Astrocytes labeled with glial fibrillary acid protein.
    • IEG with an antibody against EGR-1, 'a well-known marker of calcium dependent neuronal activity'
    • Neurofilament revealed using a monoclonal NF-M antibody.
    • Caspace-3 with the associated antibody
    • Details the steps for immunostaining -- wash, blocknig buffer, addition of the antibody in diluted blocking solution (skim milk) overnight, wash again, incubate in biotinylated secondary antibody, wash again, incubate in avidin-biotin-peroxidase solution.
    • Flourescent immunohistochemistry had biotynlation replaced with alexa Fluor 488-conjugated horse anti-mouse and Alexa Fluor 594-conjugated goat anti-rabbit overnight.

____References____

[0] Freire MA, Morya E, Faber J, Santos JR, Guimaraes JS, Lemos NA, Sameshima K, Pereira A, Ribeiro S, Nicolelis MA, Comprehensive analysis of tissue preservation and recording quality from chronic multielectrode implants.PLoS One 6:11, e27554 (2011)

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ref: Costa-2006.1 tags: Rui Costa Miguel Nicolelis Dopamine depletion excess cortex striatum hyperkinesia akinesia parkinsons DAT-KO date: 03-02-2012 01:03 gmt revision:8 [7] [6] [5] [4] [3] [2] [head]

PMID-17046697 Rapid alterations in corticostriatal ensemble coordination during acute dopamine-dependent motor dysfunction.

  • used rats where they could rapidly switch between dopamine depletion (0.2%) and overexpression (500%)
  • most cortical and striatal neurons ( approximately 70%) changed firing rate during the transition between dopamine-related hyperkinesia and akinesia,
    • buuut the overall cortical firing rate remained unchanged
  • repeated dopamine depletion is accompanied by the loss of glutamergic synapses in striatopallidal neurons (Day et al 2006) PMID-16415865 (Kaneda et al 2005). PMID-16367790
  • with Marc Caron
  • Dopamine is believed to modulate positively the direct striatal pathway that contains predominantly D1-type receptors and disinhibits cortical neurons to modulate negatively the indirect pathway that predominantly contains D2-type receptors and increased crotical inhibition (Albin et al 1989 {1050}, Filion and Tremblay 1991; Gerfen 1992, Parr-Brownlie and Hyland, 2005).
  • According to the classical view (Albin et al 1989), lack of DA release should lead to inhibition of cortical activity and an inability to produce movement, while an excess of Dopamine should lead to increased cortical activity and hyperactivity (Gerfen, 1992).
    • mouse model: DDD PMID-17030735[] (dopamine transporter knockout)

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ref: Obeid-2003.02 tags: Obeid integrated circuits recording Morizio Nicolelis date: 01-15-2012 04:35 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

IEEE-1185151 (pdf) Two multichannel integrated circuits for neural recording and signal processing

  • pretty basic, nothing tricky. Actually, they are rather scarce with the details -- Morizio?
  • all 16 capacitors are placed off chip; on chip capacitors are only 950e-18 F/um^2 or 0.001pF/um^2 in the process they use.
  • designs with this circuit topology were rejected for noise concerns, as they would require resistors as large as 10G for to realize gain and filter cutoff.
    • and yet Reid's chips seem to be working fine without external capcitors ...
  • have variable gain (but not AGC).
  • 5uV RMS input noise; 3.5uV for the plexon headstage.

____References____

Obeid, I. and Morizio, J.C. and Moxon, K.A. and Nicolelis, M.A.L. and Wolf, P.D. Two multichannel integrated circuits for neural recording and signal processing Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on 50 2 255 -258 (2003)

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ref: Bossetti-2004.06 tags: Bossetti wolf Carmena Nicolelis latency wireless BMI recording date: 01-08-2012 21:16 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

IEEE-1300783 (pdf) Transmission latencies in a telemetry-linked brain-machine interface

  • quote: "examines the relationships between the ratio of output to average input bandwidth of an implanted device and transmission latency and required queue depth".
  • can use to explain why I decided on the fixed-bandwidth method. must measure the latency on my system .. how?
  • firing bursts results in high latencies in a variable-bandwidth queued system.
  • Tested in 32-neuron ensemble.
  • require output bandwidth / input bandwidth to be at least 4 to get sub-10ms max latency.

____References____

Bossetti, C.A. and Carmena, J.M. and Nicolelis, M.A.L. and Wolf, P.D. Transmission latencies in a telemetry-linked brain-machine interface Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on 51 6 919 -924 (2004.06)

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ref: Carmena-2003.11 tags: Carmena nicolelis BMI learning 2003 date: 01-08-2012 18:53 gmt revision:5 [4] [3] [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-14624244[0] Learning to control a brain-machine interface for reaching and grasping by primates.

  • strong focus on learning & reorganization.
  • Jose's first main paper.
  • focuses on two engineering / scientific questions: what signal to use, and how much of it, and from where.
    • As for where, of course we suggest that the representation is distributed.
  • Quality of predictions: gripping force > hand velocity > hand position.
  • Showed silent EMGs during BMI control.
  • Put a robot in the feedback path; this ammounted for some nonlinearities + 60-90ms delay.
  • Predictions follow anatomical expectation:
    • M1 (33-56 cells) predicts 73% variance for hand pos, 66% velocity, 83% for gripping force .
    • SMA (16-19 cells) 51% position, 51% velocity, 19% gripping force.
    • They need a table for this shiz.
  • Relatively high-quality predictions. (When I initially looked at the data, I was frustrated with the noise!)
  • Learning was associated with increased contribution of single units.
    • appeared to be more 'learning' in SMA.
    • Training on a position model seemed to increase the ctx representation of hand position.
  • changes between pole control and brain control:
    • 68% of of sampled neurons showed reduced tuning in BCWOH
    • 14% no change
    • 18% enhanced tuning.
  • Directional tuning curves clustered in a band during brain control -- neurons clustering around the first PC?
    • All cortical areas tested showed increases in correlated firing -- arousal?
    • this puts some movements into the nullspace of the Wiener matrix. Or does it? should have had the monkey make stereotyped movements to dissociate movement directions.
  • Knocks {334} in that:
    • preferred directions were derived not from actual movements, but from firing rates during target appearance time windows.
    • tuning strength could have increased simple because the movements became straighter with practice.
  • From Fetz, {329}: Interestingly, the conversion parameters obtained for one set of trials provided increasingly poor predictions of future responses, indicating a source of drift over tens of minutes in the open-loop condition. This problem was alleviated when the monkeys observed the consequences of their neural activity in ‘real time’ and could optimize cell activity to achieve the desired goal under ‘closed-loop’ conditions.

____References____

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ref: Wessberg-2000.11 tags: wessberg nicolelis BMI wiener date: 01-08-2012 02:53 gmt revision:4 [3] [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-11099043[0] Real-time prediction of hand trajectory by ensembles of cortical neurons in primates

  • both linear and nonlinear methods
  • 3d robotic control through the internet gee-whiz!
  • 2 owl monkeys.
  • Showed neuron-dropping curves.
    • Analysis revealed fewer PMd neurons would be required to achieve 90% accuracy (480 PMD, approximately 660 M1, 1200 ipsilateral).
  • Used non-overtrained food picking behavior.

____References____

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ref: Li-2009.07 tags: Zheng Odoherty Nicolelis unscented kalman wiener filter date: 01-07-2012 23:57 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

PMID-19603074[0] Unscented Kalman filter for brain-machine interfaces.

  • Includes quadratic neuron tuning curves.
  • Includes n-1 past states for augmented state prediction.
  • Population vector .. has < 0 SNR.
  • Works best with only 1 future tap .. ?
  • Pursuit and center-out tasks.

____References____

[0] Li Z, O'Doherty JE, Hanson TL, Lebedev MA, Henriquez CS, Nicolelis MA, Unscented Kalman filter for brain-machine interfaces.PLoS One 4:7, e6243 (2009 Jul 15)

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ref: Zacksenhouse-2007.07 tags: Zacksenhouse 2007 Odoherty Nicolelis cortical adaptation BMI date: 01-06-2012 03:10 gmt revision:3 [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-17637835[0] Cortical modulations increase in early sessions with brain-machine interface.

  • "we demonstrate that the modulations of the firing-rates of cortical neurons increased abruptly after the monkeys started operating the BMI"
    • My hypothesis: is this like LMAN? Injection of noise for the purpose of exploration?
    • Their hypothesis: we are listening to the noise or effect of increased processing / congnitive load.
    • Alternative: decreased feedback / scrabled feedback makes the individual control signals themselves less controlled.
  • Describes spikes as inhomogeneous poisson processes, and breaks things down thusly.
  • Also develop a parametric model of neuronal firing based on tuning to movement, including velocity and acceleration.
  • Fano factor of recorded neurons increased during BCWH & BCWOH.
  • Percent overall modulation (POM) higher in brain control. That is, the variance explained not by the inhomogeneous poisson process, but rather by firing rate variations.
    • "[T]he ensemble-POM increased mainly due to an increase in the variance of the spike-count, which was not matched by the change in the mean spike-count."
  • Figure 6 is pretty convincing, actually.
  • PVM (percent velocity modulation) correlates strongly with POM, but with a fractional slope, indicating that veolocity tuning accounts for only a fraction of the variance.
    • "Since the increase in POM was not matched by increasing PVM or PKM, the higher neuronal rate modulations observed during brain control cannot be explained only by increased modulations due to the kinematics of the movement."

____References____

[0] Zacksenhouse M, Lebedev MA, Carmena JM, O'Doherty JE, Henriquez C, Nicolelis MA, Cortical modulations increase in early sessions with brain-machine interface.PLoS One 2:7, e619 (2007 Jul 18)

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ref: notes-2000.09 tags: BMI recording technology Chapin Nicolelis battery Wolf date: 01-06-2012 03:09 gmt revision:4 [3] [2] [1] [0] [head]

from the book "Neural Prostheses for Restoration of Sensory and Motor Function" edited by John Chapin and Karen Moxon.

Phillip Kennedy's one-channel neurotrophic glass electrode BMI (axons apparently grew into the electrode, and he recorded from them)

Pat Wolf on neural amplification / telemetry technology

battery technology for powering the neural telemetry

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ref: Kim-2006.06 tags: Hyun Kim Carmena Nicolelis continuous shared control gripper BMI date: 01-06-2012 00:20 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

IEEE-1634510 (pdf) Continuous shared control for stabilizing reaching and grasping with brain-machine interfaces.

  • The pneumatic gripper for picking up objects.
  • 70% brain control, 30% sensor control optimal.
  • Talk about 20Hz nyquist frequency for fast human motor movements, versus the need to smooth and remove noise.
  • Method: proximity sensors
    • collision avoidance 'pain withdrawal'
    • 'infant palmar grasp reflex'
    • Potential field associated with these sensors to implement continuous shared control.
  • Not! online -- used Aurora's data.

____References____

Kim, H.K. and Biggs, J. and Schloerb, W. and Carmena, M. and Lebedev, M.A. and Nicolelis, M.A.L. and Srinivasan, M.A. Continuous shared control for stabilizing reaching and grasping with brain-machine interfaces Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on 53 6 1164 -1173 (2006)

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ref: Peikon-2009.06 tags: Peikon Fitzsimmons Nicolelis video tracking walking BMI Idoya date: 01-06-2012 00:19 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

PMID-19464514[0] Three-dimensional, automated, real-time video system for tracking limb motion in brain-machine interface studies.

  • yepp.

____References____

[0] Peikon ID, Fitzsimmons NA, Lebedev MA, Nicolelis MA, Three-dimensional, automated, real-time video system for tracking limb motion in brain-machine interface studies.J Neurosci Methods 180:2, 224-33 (2009 Jun 15)

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ref: Nicolelis-1997 tags: nicolelis microwire array electrophysiology rats date: 01-05-2012 03:35 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

PMID-9136763[0] Reconstructing the engram: simultaneous, multisite, many single neuron recordings.

  • descibes Miguel's microwire arrays.
  • 100 units from 48 microwires in rats.
  • 2.3 units / microwire.
  • stable for weeks -- c.f. 2011. [1]

____References____

[0] Nicolelis MA, Ghazanfar AA, Faggin BM, Votaw S, Oliveira LM, Reconstructing the engram: simultaneous, multisite, many single neuron recordings.Neuron 18:4, 529-37 (1997 Apr)
[1] Freire MA, Morya E, Faber J, Santos JR, Guimaraes JS, Lemos NA, Sameshima K, Pereira A, Ribeiro S, Nicolelis MA, Comprehensive analysis of tissue preservation and recording quality from chronic multielectrode implants.PLoS One 6:11, e27554 (2011)

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ref: Nicolelis-2003.09 tags: nicolelis recording electrode monkeys MEA date: 01-04-2012 01:23 gmt revision:3 [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-12960378 Chronic, multisite, multielectrode recordings in macaque monkeys.

  • max 412 neurons, snr 5
  • up to 18 months, with precipitous decline
  • Miguel is the first author. well, that only makes sense.

____References____

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ref: Nicolelis-1993 tags: neurons somatosensory nicolelis rats thalamus date: 01-03-2012 23:30 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

from the Scientific American:

  • blocking (single?) neuron activity in S1 cortex affects the responses of VPM neurons in the thalamus - indicating that descending feedback signals in the cortex to the VPM could have a major role in modulating the ascending information.
  • if you implant a cuff electrode aroung the trigeminal nerve, the evoked responses in S1 and VPM are dependent on the behavioral state of the animal (of course!). this effect is so pronounced that, when the rats were not 'paying attention', only the first stimulus of a series evoked a response; when the rat was whisking, stimulation was faithfully reported.

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ref: Nicolelis-2011 tags: Nicolelis beyond boundaries MEA date: 01-03-2012 18:06 gmt revision:5 [4] [3] [2] [1] [0] [head]

Beyond Boundaries: The New Neuroscience of Connecting Brains with Machines - and How It Will Change Our Lives

  • Lashley removed parts of the brain after training animals (vivisectionist) "In fact, if just one-sixtieth of the primary visual cortex remained, the animal would retain a visual-motor habit it had learned."
  • Adrian 1946 ... Nobel prize 1932 .. Volta 1783.
  • Thomas Young, of Young's double slit experiment.
  • Franz Gall, Phrenologist.
  • Stanley Finger __Origins of Neuroscience__
  • Broca 1861
  • Cajal's discovery of neurons.
  • Cytoarchitectonics was launched into prime time, at least in part, by the Russian histologist Vladimir Betz’s discovery in 1874 that the motor cortex, the cortical region that Hitzig and Fritsch had tagged as the source of body movements, contained a peculiar horizontal layer packed with large pyramid-shaped neurons.
  • The German neurologist Korbinian Brodmann introduced, in a series of papers published between 1903 and 1914, a comprehensive cytoarchitectonic classification, based on Nissl staining, suggesting that the mammalian cortex comprised fifty-two cortical fields
  • Penfield was a student of Sherrington. Hebb collaborated with Penfield to create the Homunculus.
  • Phantom limb pain ... Melzack in the 1980s.
  • Rubber hand illusion. Saw a bit of that today with prism goggles.
  • Recording: Eccles, Mountcastle, who established the idea of a 'cortical column'.
  • John Cunningham Lilly and his friend Edward Evarts devised the first sensory deprivation chamber.
    • Lilly was of the first to record from non-anesthetized animals.
    • 25 channels! Filmed the responses as amplified on glow-tubes!
    • Lilly also came up with a charge-balanced wave for ICMS.
    • Lilly managed to implant 610 electrodes -- the electronics was not up to the age, though. (now it is!)
    • In contrast Evarts focused on one neuron at a time, well isolated.
      • Quote: In some cases, neurophysiological experiments seem to have morphed into tautological exercises, in which authors report, usually with great excitement, that after many months of intense behavioral training and painstaking analysis of neuron firing patterns, they were capable of identifying a few neurons whose activity correlates with some of the task’s main attributes.
  • Regarding the inception of the MEA: Because of the larger exposed area of the microwire tips, he postulated that the inflammatory reaction would not be sufficient to block a tip’s entire surface. Instead, the inflammatory deposits would actually improve the quality of the microwire’s recordings over the first two weeks or so, morphing it from an electrode with low to one with high resistance.
    • Hmm. Low resistance is good.
  • Fairly in-depth review of Fetz and Finnochio's work with EMG recruitment & how M1 & EMG could be dissociated.
  • Tool incorporation & Iriki / Hemi-neglect and strokes.
  • The Quark and the Jaguar by Murray Gell-Mann
  • Delgado is still alive; Miguel got permission from him to use the images of the bull etc.
    • Talks about manipulating social hierarchies. This got him notoriety, and not all of the good sort: wireheading.

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ref: ODoherty-2011 tags: Odoherty Nicolelis ICMS stimulation randomly patterned gamma distribution date: 01-03-2012 06:55 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

IEEE-6114258 (pdf) Towards a Brain-Machine-Brain Interface:Virtual Active Touch Using Randomly Patterned Intracortical Microstimulation.

  • Key result: monkeys can discriminate between constant-frequency ICMS and aperiodic pulses, hence can discriminate some fine temporal aspects of ICMS.
  • Also discussed blanking methods for stimulating and recording at the same time (on different electrodes, using the randomized stimulation patterns).

____References____

O'Doherty, J. and Lebedev, M. and Li, Z. and Nicolelis, M. Towards a Brain #x2013;Machine #x2013;Brain Interface:Virtual Active Touch Using Randomly Patterned Intracortical Microstimulation Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, IEEE Transactions on PP 99 1 (2011)

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ref: ODoherty-2009.01 tags: Odoherty Nicolelis ICMS stimulation BMI BMBI date: 01-03-2012 06:55 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

PMID-19750199[0] A brain-machine interface instructed by direct intracortical microstimulation.

  • Both and and brain control, cud by ICMS to S1, Mango and Nectarine.
    • PP ineffective. Despite Doty [1].
  • pretty careful site mapping (fig 1).
  • SUA classified by less that 1 per 1000 ISI < 1.6ms.
  • pursuit & center out tasks.
  • Correlation coeficient (R^2) not so high across all sessions - 0.5 (?).
  • ICMS learning, once the monkey began to get it, was rapid.

____References____

[0] O'Doherty JE, Lebedev MA, Hanson TL, Fitzsimmons NA, Nicolelis MA, A brain-machine interface instructed by direct intracortical microstimulation.Front Integr Neurosci 3no Issue 20 (2009)
[1] Doty RW, Electrical stimulation of the brain in behavioral context.Annu Rev Psychol 20no Issue 289-320 (1969)

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ref: Lebedev-2006.09 tags: misha lebedev nicolelis BMI past present future electrodes review MEA date: 01-03-2012 03:26 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

PMID-16859758 Brain-machine interfaces: past, present and future.

  • Describes the state of the art & what needs to be done. Namely, better recording quality.
  • state that current EEG BMIs are limited to 5-25 bits/min (typo!!) [2,11]
    • [2] Wolpaw "Brain-computer interfaces for communication and control" 2002.
    • [11] Birbaumer "Brain-computer-interface research: coming of age" 2006.
  • set of references on biofeedback control of EEG in research animals.
  • EEG BCIs are either biofeedback based or classifier (P300, synchronous decoder ) based.
  • First invasive BMIs Fetz [40-45], Schmidt [46]; progress has been limited by technology. Must have been quite challenging for him to do the research!
    • [40] Fetz "Operant Conditioning of cortical unit activity" 1969
    • [41] Fetz "Are movement parameters recognizably coded in activity of single neurons?" 1992
    • [42] Fetz and Baker "Operantly conditioned patterns on precentral unit activity and correlated responses in adjacent cells and contralateral muscles." 1973
    • [43] Fetz and Finocchio "Operant Conditioning of specific patterns of neural and muscular activity" 1971
    • [44] Fetz and Finocchio "Operant conditioning of isolated activity in specific muscles and precentral cells" 1972
    • [45] Fetz and Finocchio 1975 "Correlations between activity of motor cortex cells and arm muscles during operantly conditioned response patterns." 1975
    • [46] Schmidt "single neuron recording from motor cortex as a possible source of signals for control of external devices." 1980
  • microelectrode arrays solved one of the problems.
  • talk about how more neurons are needed.
  • Principles of BMIs: Evarts [66-68], neuronal modulations are highly variable [69-72].
    • [66] Evarts, E.V. (1966) Pyramidal tract activity associated with a conditioned hand movement in the monkey.
    • [67] Evarts, E.V. (1968) Relation of pyramidal tract activity to force exerted during voluntary movement.
    • [68] Evarts, E.V. (1968) A technique for recording activity of subcortical neurons in moving animals.
    • "THus, as much as neighboring neurons might display highly disinct firing modulation patterns during the execution of a particular movement, single-neuron firing can vary substantially from one trial to the next, despite the fact that the overt movements remain virtually identical. :
    • "averaging across large populations of neurons significantly reduces the variability of signals derived from single neurons [54, 69].
    • Should i mention this in thesis?
  • Better way to assimilate the BMI into the body is to have proprioceptive feedback.
  • suggest the same standard things to be improved, excluding electronics. :
    • electrodes / recording
    • decoding
    • incorporating plasticity
    • better prosthetics.
  • "multi-unit signals can also be efficiently used in BMI control [57] {318}.
  • Some groups have strongly claimed that recordings from a small number of neurons can be sufficient for good performance in a BMI. [55,56,63]
    • This is not Miguel's approach: more neurons confers accuracy [54{317},57,70] and reliability [69].
      • [70] Wessberg, J. and Nicolelis, M.A. (2004) Optimizing a linear algorithm for real-time robotic control using chronic cortical ensemble recordings in monkeys. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 16, 1022–1035
  • Still need new microelectrodes; electrodes become encapsulated by fibrous tissue and cells die in the vicinity of electrodes [77] {781}.
    • suggest anti-inflammatory coating, though the jury is out.
  • Initial wireless telemetry systems: [93-99]. [93]{315}
    • [94] Knutti, J.W. et al. (1979) An integrated circuit approach to totally implantable telemetry systems. Biotelem. Patient Monit. 6, 95–106
    • [97] Chien, C.N. and Jaw, F.S. (2005) Miniature telemetry system for the recording of action and field potentials. J. Neurosci. Methods 147
    • [98] {930}
    • [99] Morizio Morizio, J. et al. (2005) Fifteen-channel wireless headstage system for single-unit rat recordings.
    • [100] (of broader interest) Moxon, K.A. et al. (2004) Ceramic-based multisite electrode arrays for chronic single-neuron recording. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51, 647–656
  • nanotechnology probes that access the brain through the vasular system [101].
  • although a good number of linear and nonlinear algorithms have been proposed and tested [1,54,56,57,70,110-116], Wiener filters have proved sufficient [54,55,57,58,65,117].
  • almost 140 years ago Head and Holmes suggested that the body schema -- that is, the internal brain representation of one's body -- could extend itself to include a wielded tool.

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ref: Rizk-2009.04 tags: Rizk neural recording Wolf Nicolelis turner FPGA wireless date: 01-03-2012 00:58 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

PMID-19255459[0] A fully implantable 96-channel neural data acquisition system.

  • also performs spike detection and extraction within the body.
  • Inductively powered.
  • 960Mhz data band, link up to 2m.
  • First fully implantable system aimed at BMI; however, fully implantable low channel-count have already been deployed.

____References____

[0] Rizk M, Bossetti CA, Jochum TA, Callender SH, Nicolelis MA, Turner DA, Wolf PD, A fully implantable 96-channel neural data acquisition system.J Neural Eng 6:2, 026002 (2009 Apr)

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ref: Nicolelis-2002.1 tags: Nicolelis MEA electrodes recording date: 01-03-2012 00:57 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

PMID-12367642[0] Multielectrode recordings: the next steps.

  • Ensemble recordings have actually been around for a long time -- Schmidt, at least.
    • 100s of electrodes, however, have not.
  • Predicted the death of single unit recordings and the emergence of 1000s of channels with indefinite longevity.
  • Also talk about gene arrays & antisense RNA & cre/loxP. Oldish.

____References____

[0] Nicolelis MA, Ribeiro S, Multielectrode recordings: the next steps.Curr Opin Neurobiol 12:5, 602-6 (2002 Oct)

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ref: Sanchez-2005.06 tags: BMI Sanchez Nicolelis Wessberg recurrent neural network date: 01-01-2012 18:28 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

IEEE-1439548 (pdf) Interpreting spatial and temporal neural activity through a recurrent neural network brain-machine interface

  • Putting it here for the record.
  • Note they did a sensitivity analysis (via chain rule) of the recurrent neural network used for BMI predictions.
  • Used data (X,Y,Z) from 2 monkeys feeding.
  • Figure 6 is strange, data could be represented better.
  • Also see: IEEE-1300786 (pdf) Ascertaining the importance of neurons to develop better brain-machine interfaces Also by Justin Sanchez.

____References____

Sanchez, J.C. and Erdogmus, D. and Nicolelis, M.A.L. and Wessberg, J. and Principe, J.C. Interpreting spatial and temporal neural activity through a recurrent neural network brain-machine interface Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, IEEE Transactions on 13 2 213 -219 (2005)

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ref: ODoherty-2011.1 tags: nicolelis odoherty nicolelis 2011 active tactile BMBI stimulation ICMS unscented Kalman filter date: 01-01-2012 18:27 gmt revision:3 [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-21976021[0] Active tactile exploration using a brain-machine-brain interface.

  • Tricky part was the temporal interleaving. 50ms stim / 50ms record.
    • No proof a priori as S1 stim could affect M1 processing.
  • Real perception, as the stimulation resulted from motor commands (through a BMI).
  • RAT = rewarded ICMS (200Hs pulses)
  • UAT = unrewarded ICMS, 400Hs, skip every 100ms.
  • NAT = no ICMS.
  • So short. damn you, nature.

____References____

[0] O'Doherty JE, Lebedev MA, Ifft PJ, Zhuang KZ, Shokur S, Bleuler H, Nicolelis MA, Active tactile exploration using a brain-machine-brain interface.Nature 479:7372, 228-31 (2011 Oct 5)

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ref: Carmena-2005.11 tags: carmena BMI nicolelis single-unit variability 2005 date: 01-01-2012 17:31 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

PMID-16291944[0] Stable ensemble performance with single-neuron variability during reaching movements in primates.

  • correlation between the firing of single neurons and movement parameters was nonstationary over 30-60 minute recording sessions.
  • yet! you could get stable prediction of arm movements, suggesting that movement parameters are redundantly encoded.
  • this, in turn, implies that you do not need a stable recorded population for good predictions.
  • suggest that the variance itself could be a means of neuronal 'computation' or exploration based on perturbations.
    • later Carmena papers do not mention this.

____References____

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ref: Fitzsimmons-2007.05 tags: Fitzsimmons nicolelis stimluation ICMS owl monkeys date: 01-01-2012 00:12 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

PMID-17522304[0] Primate reaching cued by multichannel spatiotemporal cortical microstimulation.

  • Good intro and discussion. The rest of it is familiar - was there!
  • Monkeys did not immediately generalize vibration stimuli to ICMS. But then again, owl monkeys are not terribly intelligent. c.f. Romo.

____References____

[0] Fitzsimmons NA, Drake W, Hanson TL, Lebedev MA, Nicolelis MA, Primate reaching cued by multichannel spatiotemporal cortical microstimulation.J Neurosci 27:21, 5593-602 (2007 May 23)

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ref: Nicolelis-1998.11 tags: spatiotemporal spiking nicolelis somatosensory tactile S1 3b microwire array rate temporal coding code date: 12-28-2011 20:42 gmt revision:3 [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-10196571[0] Simultaneous encoding of tactile information by three primate cortical areas

  • owl monkeys.
  • used microwires arrays to decode the location of tactile stimuli; location was encoded through te population, not within single units.
  • areas 3b, S1 & S2.
  • used LVQ (learning vector quantization) backprop, LDA to predict/ classify touch trials; all yielded about the same ~60% accuracy. Chance level 33%.
  • Interesting: "the spatiotemporal character of neuronal responses in the SII cortex was shown to contain the requisite information for the encoding of stimulus location using temporally patterned spike sequences, whereas the simultaneously recorded neuronal responses in areas 3b and 2 contained the requisite information for rate coding."
    • They support this result by varying bin widths and looking at the % of correctly classivied trials. in SII, increasing bin width decreases (slightly but significantly) the prediction accuracy.

____References____

[0] Nicolelis MA, Ghazanfar AA, Stambaugh CR, Oliveira LM, Laubach M, Chapin JK, Nelson RJ, Kaas JH, Simultaneous encoding of tactile information by three primate cortical areas.Nat Neurosci 1:7, 621-30 (1998 Nov)

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ref: Nicolelis-1997.04 tags: nicolelis kralik electrodes electrophysiology 1997 date: 12-17-2011 01:41 gmt revision:3 [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-11812202[0] Techniques for long-term multisite neuronal ensemble recordings in behaving animals.

  • talk about moveable bundles.
  • human-level surgical techniques and anesthesia.
  • new methods of data analysis.

____References____

[0] Kralik JD, Dimitrov DF, Krupa DJ, Katz DB, Cohen D, Nicolelis MA, Techniques for long-term multisite neuronal ensemble recordings in behaving animals.Methods 25:2, 121-50 (2001 Oct)

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ref: Laubach-2003.03 tags: cluster matlab linux neurophysiology recording on-line data_analysis microstimulation nicolelis laubach date: 12-17-2011 00:38 gmt revision:4 [3] [2] [1] [0] [head]

IEEE-1215970 (pdf)

  • 2003
  • M. Laubach
  • Random Forests - what are these?
  • was this ever used??

follow up paper: http://spikelab.jbpierce.org/Publications/LaubachEMBS2003.pdf

  • discriminant pusuit algorithm & local regression basis (again what are these? lead me to find the lazy learning package: http://iridia.ulb.ac.be/~lazy/

____References____

Laubach, M. and Arieh, Y. and Luczak, A. and Oh, J. and Xu, Y. Bioengineering Conference, 2003 IEEE 29th Annual, Proceedings of 17 - 18 (2003.03)

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ref: Chapin-1999.07 tags: chapin Nicolelis BMI neural net original SUNY rat date: 09-02-2009 23:11 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

PMID-10404201 Real-time control of a robot arm using simultaneously recorded neurons in the motor cortex.

  • Abstract: To determine whether simultaneously recorded motor cortex neurons can be used for real-time device control, rats were trained to position a robot arm to obtain water by pressing a lever. Mathematical transformations, including neural networks, converted multineuron signals into 'neuronal population functions' that accurately predicted lever trajectory. Next, these functions were electronically converted into real-time signals for robot arm control. After switching to this 'neurorobotic' mode, 4 of 6 animals (those with > 25 task-related neurons) routinely used these brain-derived signals to position the robot arm and obtain water. With continued training in neurorobotic mode, the animals' lever movement diminished or stopped. These results suggest a possible means for movement restoration in paralysis patients.
The basic idea of the experiment. Rat controlled the water lever with a forelimb lever, then later learned to control the water lever directly. They used an artificial neural network to decode the intended movement.

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ref: bookmarks-0 tags: Alan Rudolph DARPA Miguel Nicolelis date: 03-10-2009 21:19 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's Alan Rudolph:

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ref: Sanchez-2004.01 tags: BMI nicolelis florida Carmena Principe date: 04-06-2007 21:02 gmt revision:3 [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-17271543[] http://hardm.ath.cx:88/pdf/sanchez2004.pdf

____References____

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ref: Dzirasa-2006.1 tags: DAT-KO Kafui Nicolelis sleep wake dopamine tyrosine synthesis date: 03-12-2007 01:50 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

PMID-17035544 Dopaminergic control of sleep-wake states.

  • dopmergic activity is high in REM sleep!! perhaps this is involved in learning?
  • they have a good description of the DAT-KO model, and why it is good for both exessive levels of synaptic dopamine as well as depressed/parkinsonian levels...
  • also at http://hardm.ath.cx:88/pdf/Kafui2006.pdf