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[0] Isoda M, Hikosaka O, Role for subthalamic nucleus neurons in switching from automatic to controlled eye movement.J Neurosci 28:28, 7209-18 (2008 Jul 9)

[0] Nicolelis MA, Dimitrov D, Carmena JM, Crist R, Lehew G, Kralik JD, Wise SP, Chronic, multisite, multielectrode recordings in macaque monkeys.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:19, 11041-6 (2003 Sep 16)

[0] Aflalo TN, Graziano MS, Relationship between unconstrained arm movements and single-neuron firing in the macaque motor cortex.J Neurosci 27:11, 2760-80 (2007 Mar 14)

[0] Recanzone GH, Schreiner CE, Merzenich MM, Plasticity in the frequency representation of primary auditory cortex following discrimination training in adult owl monkeys.J Neurosci 13:1, 87-103 (1993 Jan)

[0] Maravita A, Iriki A, Tools for the body (schema).Trends Cogn Sci 8:2, 79-86 (2004 Feb)[1] Iriki A, Tanaka M, Iwamura Y, Coding of modified body schema during tool use by macaque postcentral neurones.Neuroreport 7:14, 2325-30 (1996 Oct 2)

[0] Thach WT, Correlation of neural discharge with pattern and force of muscular activity, joint position, and direction of intended next movement in motor cortex and cerebellum.J Neurophysiol 41:3, 654-76 (1978 May)

[0] Ferrari PF, Rozzi S, Fogassi L, Mirror neurons responding to observation of actions made with tools in monkey ventral premotor cortex.J Cogn Neurosci 17:2, 212-26 (2005 Feb)

[0] Shidara M, Aigner TG, Richmond BJ, Neuronal signals in the monkey ventral striatum related to progress through a predictable series of trials.J Neurosci 18:7, 2613-25 (1998 Apr 1)

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ref: -0 tags: ultrasonic BMI monkey LFP intan nordic Ozturk UCSD date: 09-30-2016 19:38 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

A Wireless 32-Channel Implantable Bidirectional Brain Machine Interface

  • Yi Su 1,2,*, Sudhamayee Routhu 2, Kee S. Moon 3, Sung Q. Lee 4, WooSub Youm 4 and Yusuf Ozturk 2,
  • Only LFP from a utah array, but solid work none-the-less.
  • 20V unipolar stimulation.
    • Through separate recording and stimulation electrodes.
  • 35mm x 10mm.
  • LFP due to limited bandwidth.
    • Less RF bw & compression that the wireless system I designed 6 years ago.
    • Reason: "Further, in order to analyze the integrative synaptic processes, LFP is the signal of interest instead of spikes, because synaptic processes cannot be captured by spike activity of a small number of neurons"
captured by spike activity of a small number of neurons.
  • Reference use of DuraGen followed by silicone elastomer.
  • Didn't cite us.

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ref: -0 tags: Anna Roe optogenetics artificial dura monkeys intrinisic imaging date: 09-30-2013 19:08 gmt revision:3 [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-23761700 Optogenetics through windows on the brain in nonhuman primates

  • technique paper.
  • placed over the visual cortex.
  • Injected virus through the artificial dura -- micropipette, not CVD.
  • Strong expression:
  • See also: PMID-19409264 (Boyden, 2009)

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ref: -0 tags: locomotion decerebrated monkeys spinal cord section STN stimulation date: 03-01-2012 23:53 gmt revision:0 [head]

PMID-7326562 Locomotor control in macaque monkeys

  • Were not able to induce walking with in monkeys with a sectioned spinal cord
  • Were able to induce walking motion by pulsed stimulation of the STN, with varying walking speed with varying currents!
  • Detailed, informative report, more than I have time to record here today.

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ref: Isoda-2008.07 tags: STN switching motor control scaccades monkeys electrophysiology DBS date: 02-22-2012 15:02 gmt revision:5 [4] [3] [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-18614691[0] Role for subthalamic nucleus neurons in switching from automatic to controlled eye movement.

  • we found neurons that showed a phasic change in activity specifically before volitionally controlled saccades which were switched from automatic saccades
  • A majority of switch-related neurons were considered to inhibit no-longer-valid automatic processes, and the inhibition started early enough to enable the animal to switch.
  • We suggest that the STN mediates the control signal originated from the medial frontal cortex and implements the behavioral switching function using its connections with other basal ganglia nuclei and the superior colliculus.
  • neurons have a really high rate of spiking - what we observe in DBS surgeries.
  • nice. There may be alternate explanations, but this one is plausible.

____References____

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ref: Gale-2009.03 tags: STN DBS monkey comparison electrophysiology date: 02-21-2012 16:34 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

PMID-19167367[0] Subthalamic nucleus discharge patterns during movement in the normal monkey and Parkinsonian patient.

  • Compared STN activity in normal monkeys and parkinsonian humans performing the same joystick target acquisition task.
  • PD neurons were much burstier, and had lower variance in responses.
  • Simultaneously recorded neurons in the human demonstrated consistent oscillatory synchronization at restricted frequency bands, whereas synchronized oscillatory neurons in the monkey were not restricted to distinct frequencies (this is possibly not meaningful).
  • the net effect of PD may be a reduction in the physiological degrees of freedom of BG neurons with diminished information carrying capacity.
  • PETHs look bad compared to our results.

____References____

[0] Gale JT, Shields DC, Jain FA, Amirnovin R, Eskandar EN, Subthalamic nucleus discharge patterns during movement in the normal monkey and Parkinsonian patient.Brain Res 1260no Issue 15-23 (2009 Mar 13)

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ref: Georgopoulos-1983.08 tags: STN monkeys primate Georgopoulos globus pallidus date: 02-10-2012 18:57 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

PMID-6875658[0] Relations between parameters of step-tracking movements and single cell discharge in the globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus of the behaving monkey.

  • Step tracking task in monkeys; wrist flexion and extension.
    • first one in monkeys, apparently.
    • 87 neurons in GP, 36 in GPi, 29 in STN.
  • Linear tuning to direction and distance, same as in motor cortex by Georgopoulos.
    • More likely to see frequency increase.
  • Earlier firing rate change in STN than GPe than GPi.
  • Two patterns of firing in the globus pallidus external:
    • more frequent: high discharge rate interrupted with pauses of varying duration
    • less frequent: low average discharge rate with very high frequency bursts.
  • GPi: high frequency with frequent bursts.
  • GPi/e generally high firing rate - 80-100 Hz, with frequent bursts.
    • But not as deep movement tuning as M1.
  • Only primates have projections from the motor cortex to the STN.
    • This seems like an evolutionarily recent development -- apparently the cortex needs the extra level of control?

See also citing articles: http://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=16339220378239936453&as_sdt=5,34&sciodt=0,34&hl=en

____References____

[0] Georgopoulos AP, DeLong MR, Crutcher MD, Relations between parameters of step-tracking movements and single cell discharge in the globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus of the behaving monkey.J Neurosci 3:8, 1586-98 (1983 Aug)

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ref: Schwartz-1994.07 tags: Schwartz drawing spiral monkeys population vector PV date: 01-16-2012 18:52 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

PMID-8036499[0] Direct cortical representation of drawing

____References____

[0] Schwartz AB, Direct cortical representation of drawing.Science 265:5171, 540-2 (1994 Jul 22)

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ref: Nicolelis-2003.09 tags: nicolelis recording electrode monkeys MEA date: 01-04-2012 01:23 gmt revision:3 [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-12960378 Chronic, multisite, multielectrode recordings in macaque monkeys.

  • max 412 neurons, snr 5
  • up to 18 months, with precipitous decline
  • Miguel is the first author. well, that only makes sense.

____References____

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ref: Delgado-1964 tags: Delgado wireless stimulation record stimoceiver rhesus monkey date: 01-03-2012 07:07 gmt revision:5 [4] [3] [2] [1] [0] [head]

bibtex: delgado-1964 Personality, education, and electrical stimulation of the brain

  • images/977_1.pdf
  • "Is it conceivable that behavior or the psyche can be related to electronics? Before answering these questions, we should ask one more: what is the main difference between primitive tribesmen still living in the jungle and the civilized human beings so well represented by this audience?" Education.
  • Kinda a ramble saying how education and understanding the brain is essential to our future.
  • Against atomic deterrence, unsurprisingly.
    • We are in the precarious race between the acquisition of many megatons of destructive power and the development of intelligent human beings who will make wise use of the forces at our disposal"
  • Radio receiver on a belt.
  • Elicited very complex movements from stimulating the thalamus, including walking from one side of the cage to the other, including avoiding the boss monkey!
    • He calls this 'electrical stimulation of the will'.
  • stimulate nucleus postero-ventralis induces targeted, well-directed attacks against other males of the group.
  • Stimulation of the caudate-septal lobes, just behind the frontal lobes, causes the boss monkey to become tame / tolerant / less aggressive.
  • When this function was enabled by pressing a button in the monkeys cage, the monkey most harrassed learned to press the button to halt the boss's aggressive behavior.
  • Regarding patients: "some of these patients have undergone testing for weeks or months, and lead a nearly normal life wthile 10, 20 or even more fine wires were present, in different cerebral areas and ready for stimulation from outside the scalp."
    • For example, in one patient, who spike a mean of 8.5 words per minute, by means of stimulation to the second temporal column increased his conversation to 44 words per minute." Menwhile, the number of friendly remarks increased by a factor of 9.
  • "Knowledge of the human mind may be decisive for our pursuit of happiness and for the very existence of mankind"

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ref: Aflalo-2007.03 tags: Graziano motor cortex M1 SUA macaque monkey electrophysiology tuning date: 01-03-2012 03:37 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

PMID-17360898[] Relationship between Unconstrained Arm Movements and Single-Neuron Firing in the Macaque Motor Cortex

  • the best explanation of neuronal firing was the final mulijoint configuration of the arm - it accounted for 36% of the SUA variance.
  • the search for the 'correct' motor parameter (that neurons are tuned to) is an ill-posed experimental question because motor parameters are very intercorrelated.
  • they knock experiments in which the animals are overtrained & the movements limited - and they are right!
  • single electrode recording with cronically implanted steel chamber - e.g. it took a damn long time!
    • imaged the central sulcus through the dura.
    • verified location with single unit responses to palpation of the contralateral hand/arm (in S1) & microstimulation-evoked movements in M1.
  • used optotrak to measure the position of the monkey.
  • occasionally, the monkey attemptted to scratch the experimenter with fast semi-ballistic arm movement. heh. :)
  • movements were seprarated based on speed analysis - that is, all the data were analyzed as discrete segments.
  • neurons were inactive during periods of hand stasis between movements.
  • tested the diversity of their training set in a clever way: they simulated neurons tuned to various parameters of the motion, and tested to see if their analysis could recover the tuning. it could.
    • however, they still used unvalidated regression analysis to test their hypothesis. regression analysis estimates how much variance is estimated by the cosine-tuning model - it returns an R^2.
  • either averaged the neuronal tuning over an entire movement or smoothed the firing rate using a 10hz upper cutoff.
  • Moran & Schwartz' old result seems to be as much a consequence of averaging across trials as it is a consequence of actual tuning...
    • whithout the averaging, only 3% of the variance could be attributed to speed tuning.
  • i think that they have a good point in all of this: when you eliminate sources of variance (e.g. starting position) from the behavior, either by mechanical restraint or simple omission of segments or even better averaging over trials, you will get a higher R^2. but it may be false, a compression of the space along an axis where they are not well correlated!
  • a model in which the final position matters little, but the velocity used to get there does, has been found to account for little of the neuronal variance.
    • instead, neurons are tuned to any of a number of movements that terminate near a preferred direction.
  • observational studies of of the normal psontaneous behavior of monkeys indicate that a high proportion of time is spent using the arm as a postural device.
    • therefore, they expect that neurons are tuned to endpoint posture.
    • modeled the neuronal firing as a gaussian surface in the 8-dimensional space of the arm posture.
  • in comparison to other studies, the offset between neural activity and behavior was not significantly different, over the entire population of recorded neurons, from zero. This may be due to the nature of the task, which was spontaneous and ongoing, not cue and reaction based, as in many other studies.
    • quote: This result suggests that the neuronal tuning to posture reflects reatively more and anticipation of the future state of the limb rather than a feedback signal about a recent state of the limb.

____References____

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ref: -0 tags: Evarts force pyramidal tract M1 movement monkeys conduction velocity tuning date: 01-03-2012 03:25 gmt revision:3 [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-4966614 Relation of pyramidal tract activity to force exerted during voluntary movement.

  • One of the pioneering studies of electrophysiology in awake behaving animals; single electrode juice reward headposting: many followed.
  • {960} looked at conduction velocity, which we largely ignore now -- most highly mylenated axons are silent during motor quiescence and show phasic activity during movement.
    • Lower conduction velocity PTNs show + and - FR modulations. Again from [5]
  • [6] showed that PTN activity preceded EMG activity, implying that it was efferent rather than afferent feedback that was controlling the fr. as expected.
  • task: wrist flexion & extension under load.
  • task in monkey's home cage for a period of three months; monkeys carried out 3000 trials or more of the task (must have had strong wrists!)
  • Head fixated the monkeys for about 10 days prior unit recordings; "The monkeys learned to be quite cooperative in reentering the chair in the morning, since entrance to the chair was rewarded by the fruit juice of their choice (grape, apple, or orange). Indeed, some monkeys continued to work even in the presence of free water!
    • Maybe I should give mango some Hawaiian punch as well?
  • Mesured antidromic responses with a permanent electrode in the ipsilateral medullary pyramid.
  • Used glass insulated platinum-iridium electrodes [11]
  • traces are clean, very clean. I wonder if good insulation (in this case, glass) has anything to do with it?
  • controlled for displacement by varying the direction of load; PTNs seem to directly control muscles.
    • Fire during acceleration and movement for no load
    • Fire during load and co-contraction when loaded.
  • FR also related to δF/δt\delta F / \delta t : FR higher during a low but rising force than a high but falling force.
  • more than 100 PTN recorded from the precentral gyrus, but only 31' had clear and consistent relation to performance on the task.
    • 16 units on extension loads, 7 units flexion loads
    • It was only one joint afterall..
  • Cells responding to the same movement (flexion or extension) were often founf on the same vertical electrode tract.
  • Very little response to joint position.
  • Very clean moculations -- neurons are almost silent if there is no force production; FR goes up to 50-80Hz.
  • Prior to the exp Evart expected a position tuning model, but saw clear evidence of force tuning.
  • Group 1 muscle afferents have now been shown to project to the motor cortex of both monkey [1] and cat [9]. Make sense, as if the ctx is to control force, it needs feedback regarding its production.
  • Caveats: many muscles were involved in the study, mainly due to postural effects, and having one or two controls poorly delineates what is going on in the motor ctx.
    • Plus, all the muscles controlling the figers come into play -- the manipulandum must be gripped firmly, esp to resist extension loads.

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ref: Fitzsimmons-2007.05 tags: Fitzsimmons nicolelis stimluation ICMS owl monkeys date: 01-01-2012 00:12 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

PMID-17522304[0] Primate reaching cued by multichannel spatiotemporal cortical microstimulation.

  • Good intro and discussion. The rest of it is familiar - was there!
  • Monkeys did not immediately generalize vibration stimuli to ICMS. But then again, owl monkeys are not terribly intelligent. c.f. Romo.

____References____

[0] Fitzsimmons NA, Drake W, Hanson TL, Lebedev MA, Nicolelis MA, Primate reaching cued by multichannel spatiotemporal cortical microstimulation.J Neurosci 27:21, 5593-602 (2007 May 23)

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ref: -0 tags: M1 Evarts PTN conduction velocity monkey electrophysiology spinal cord date: 12-25-2011 04:25 gmt revision:0 [head]

PMID-14283057 Relation of Discharge Frequency to conduction velocity in pyramidal tract neurons

  • Not all PTN arise from the giant Betz cells -- there are too many pyramical tract axons, and not enough betz cells.
  • Most axons come from smaller cortical neurons [8,11,12].
  • Large cells have large axons hence the highest conduction velocity. (cite the squid studies...)
  • Estimate conduction velocity my stimulating in the medullary pyramid (e.g. the pyramidal tract at the level of the medulla)
  • Conduction velocity, in m/s, is six times diameter in microns (roughly; he lists no source here)
  • Mean frequency for 28 rapidly conductin units was 4.1 Hz;
    • These had a non-moving FR of fractional Hz.
    • Showed bursts with sleep, a few spikes when drowsy, very quiet when not moving.
  • MFR for 34 slower cells was 15.6 Hz.
    • Resting rate was higher in these cells.
    • Also showed bursts / more irregular firing with sleep.
  • Amazingly clean recordings. envy.
  • Some cells have much more irregular / more
  • Brookhart [2] concluded that large, rapidly conducting pyramidal fibers are probably responsible for the phasic element of movement control, whereas the smaller slower neurons are responsible for the tonic element.
  • Also true in the spinal cord: large afferents of the nuclear bag fibers in the muscle spindle carry transient info; group II are smaller and carry steady-state info.
  • ref Mountcastle [14] regarding reciprocal pairs of neurons being (surprise) reciprocally activated during joint movements.

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ref: Wyler-1980.08 tags: Wyler Lange Robbins operant conditioning motor neurons contralateral bilateral specificity monkeys motor learning date: 12-06-2011 06:36 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

PMID-6772272 Operant control of precentral neurons: bilateral single unit conditioning.

  • Used bilateral electrodes.
  • One neuron operantly conditioned, one not.
  • Switched the conditioned / controlled after performance was attained.
  • Evidence: neurons can be individually tuned, and operant control is not the result of spinal-level conditioning or change.
    • It is not the result of increased attention or increased muscle tone.
  • Simple question, simple paper.

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ref: Recanzone-1993.01 tags: plasticity cortex learning auditory owl monkeys SUA date: 10-06-2008 22:46 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

PMID-8423485[0] Plasticity in the frequency representation of primary auditory cortex following discrimination training in adult owl monkeys

  • Measured tonotopic organization (hence plasticity) in the owl monkey auditory cortex following training on a frequency discrimination task.
  • improvement in performance correlates with an improvement in neuronal tuning.
  • two controls:
    • monkeys that were engaged in a tactile discrimination task
    • monkeys that received the same auditory stimuli but had no reason to attend to it
  • lots of delicious behavior graphs

____References____

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ref: Donchin-1998.09 tags: monkey SMA lesion bimanual task date: 09-24-2008 21:59 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

both index finders push on the food!!!

however! PMID-9751054 Primary motor cortex is involved in bimanual coordination

  • the units in SMA showed no more bimanual-related activity than those in M1!

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ref: Maravita-2004.02 tags: tool use monkey mirror neurons response learning date: 09-24-2008 17:02 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

PMID-15588812[0] Tools for the body schema

See also PMID-8951846[1] Coding of modified body schema during tool use by macaque postcentral neurones.

____References____

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ref: Thach-1978.05 tags: monkeys motor control M1 cerebellum electropysiology date: 04-09-2007 19:53 gmt revision:3 [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-96223[0] Correlation of neural discharge with pattern and force of muscular activity, joint position, and direction of intended next movement in motor cortex and cerebellum.

  • recorded from M1 and interpositus/dentate nucleus of the cerebellum.
  • three classes of response in the interpositus/dentate and M1
    1. some in relation to the pattern of muscle activity
    2. some in relation to the position of the wrist
    3. some in relation to the next intended movement.

____References____

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ref: Ferrari-2005.02 tags: tool use monkey neural response leaning mirror neurons F5 date: 04-03-2007 22:44 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

PMID-15811234[] Mirror Neurons Responding to Observation of Actions Made with Tools in Monkey Ventral Premotor Cortex

  • respond when the monkey sees a human using a tool!

____References____

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ref: Shidara-1998.04 tags: ventral striatum nucleus accumbens monkey reward progress cue date: 03-27-2007 14:39 gmt revision:0 [head]

PMID-9502820[] Neuronal signals in the monkey ventral striatum related to progress through a predictable series of trials

  • neurons seem to cue/indicate/keep track of the state that a monkey is in during a sequence of reward-motivated behavior, e.g. there are neurons here which respond to the first trial, another group to anything other than 1st, others to first trial of schedules longer than one.
    • the recording site.

____References____

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ref: notes-0 tags: LSD rhesus monkeys date: 0-0-2007 0:0 revision:0 [head]

http://hardm.ath.cx:88/pdf/LSDRhesusMonkeys.pdf

  • monkeys had a sucking behavior after large doses
  • human babies have synestesia
  • perhaps LSD has some endogenous equivalent found in babies?

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ref: Cisek-2002.08 tags: PMD gaze-related discharge modulation monkey Cisek Kalaska date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]

PMID-12163555

20% of the firing variance was accouted for by the gaze angle. the monkey was free to fixate where he wanted to in this experiment.