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ref: -0 tags: parylene interconnect monolithic integration silicon DRIE date: 02-26-2013 00:29 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

A New Multi-Site Probe Array with Monolithically Integrated Parylene Flexible Cable for Neural Prostheses

    • Use DRIE to etch the back of the wafer after patterning the front. Clever!

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ref: Friston-2002.1 tags: neuroscience philosophy feedback top-down sensory integration inference date: 10-25-2011 23:24 gmt revision:0 [head]

PMID-12450490 Functional integration and inference in the brain

  • Extra-classical tuning: tuning is dependent on behavioral context (motor) or stimulus context (sensory). Author proposes that neuroimaging can be used to investigate it in humans.
  • "Information theory can, in principle, proceed using only forward connections. However, it turns out that this is only possible when processes generating sensory inputs are invertible and independent. Invertibility is precluded when the cause of a percept and the context in which it is engendered interact." -- proof? citations? Makes sense though.
  • Argues for the rather simplistic proof of backward connections via neuroimaging..

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ref: Ribeiro-2004.12 tags: Sidarta Ribeiro reverberation sleep consolidation integration replay REM SWS date: 03-26-2009 03:19 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

PMID-15576886[0] Reverberation, storage, and postsynaptic propagation of memories during sleep

  • Many references in the first paragraph! They should switch to the [n] notation; the names are disruptive.
  • Show reverberation (is this measured in a scale-invariant way?) increases after novel object is placed in cage. Recorded from a single rat for up to 96 hours.
  • also looked at Zif-268 activation in the cortex (autoradiogram);
    • Previous results showed that Zif-268 levels are up-regulated in REM but not SWS in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of exposed animals. (Ribeiro 1999)
    • hippocampal inactivation during REM sleep blocked zif-268 upregulation.
    • quote: "Increased activity is necessary but not sufficient to induce zif-268 expression, which also requires calcium inflow via NMDA channels and phosphorilation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)"
  • Sleep deprivation is much more detrimental to implicit than to explicit memory consolidation (Fowler et al. 1973; Karni et al. 1994; Smith 1995, 2001; Stickgold et al. 2000a; Laureys et al. 2002; Walker et al. 2002; Maquet et al. 2003; Mednick et al. 2003)

____References____

[0] Ribeiro S, Nicolelis MA, Reverberation, storage, and postsynaptic propagation of memories during sleep.Learn Mem 11:6, 686-96 (2004 Nov-Dec)

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ref: Wagner-2004.01 tags: sleep insight mental restructure integration synthesis consolidation date: 03-20-2009 21:31 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

PMID-14737168[0] Sleep Inspires Insight.

  • Subjects performed a cognitive task requiring the learning of stimulus–response sequences, in which they improved gradually by increasing response speed across task blocks. However, they could also improve abruptly after gaining insight into a hidden abstract rule underlying all sequences.
    • number reduction task - three numbers 1, 4, 9, in short sequence, with a simple comparison rule to generate a derivative number sequence; task was to determine the last number in sequence; this number was always the same as the second number.
  • This abstract rule was more likely to be learned after 8 hours of sleep as compared to 8 hours of wakefulness.
  • My thoughts: replay during sleep allows synchronous replay of cortical activity seen during the day (presumably from the hippocampus to the neocortex), replay which is critical for linking the second number with the last (response) number. This is a process of integration: merging present memories with existing memories / structure. The difference in time here is not as long as it could be .. presumably it goes back to anything in your cortex that is activated buy the hippocampal memories. In this way we build up semi-consistent integrated maps of the world. Possibly these things occur during dreams, and the weird events/thoughts/sensations are your brain trying to smooth and merge/infer things about the world.

____References____

[0] Wagner U, Gais S, Haider H, Verleger R, Born J, Sleep inspires insight.Nature 427:6972, 352-5 (2004 Jan 22)