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ref: -0 tags: decoding recording todo read biocompatibility histology electrodes future date: 01-28-2013 20:52 gmt revision:9 [8] [7] [6] [5] [4] [3] [head]

Things to read!


  • PMID-20359500 Population decoding of motor cortical activity using a generalized linear model with hidden states
  • Robust satisficing linear regression: Performance/robustness trade-off and consistency criterion
  • PMID-15813408 Closed-loop cortical control of direction using support vector machines
  • Efficient Decoding With Steady-State Kalman Filter in Neural Interface Systems
    • Fixed gain: We analyze a low-complexity Kalman filter implementation in which the filter gain is approximated by its steady-state form, computed offline before real-time decoding commences.
    • We also find that the steady-state Kalman filter reduces the computational load (algorithm execution time) for decoding the firing rates of 25±3 single units by a factor of 7.0±0.9.


other random scribblings: Vascularization {1027} histology {736},{737} and size {1028},{747},{1026}, insulation {1033}. How very very important -- as important or moreso than the recording technology. What has happened to {149} ?

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ref: Lebedev-2006.09 tags: misha lebedev nicolelis BMI past present future electrodes review MEA date: 01-03-2012 03:26 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

PMID-16859758 Brain-machine interfaces: past, present and future.

  • Describes the state of the art & what needs to be done. Namely, better recording quality.
  • state that current EEG BMIs are limited to 5-25 bits/min (typo!!) [2,11]
    • [2] Wolpaw "Brain-computer interfaces for communication and control" 2002.
    • [11] Birbaumer "Brain-computer-interface research: coming of age" 2006.
  • set of references on biofeedback control of EEG in research animals.
  • EEG BCIs are either biofeedback based or classifier (P300, synchronous decoder ) based.
  • First invasive BMIs Fetz [40-45], Schmidt [46]; progress has been limited by technology. Must have been quite challenging for him to do the research!
    • [40] Fetz "Operant Conditioning of cortical unit activity" 1969
    • [41] Fetz "Are movement parameters recognizably coded in activity of single neurons?" 1992
    • [42] Fetz and Baker "Operantly conditioned patterns on precentral unit activity and correlated responses in adjacent cells and contralateral muscles." 1973
    • [43] Fetz and Finocchio "Operant Conditioning of specific patterns of neural and muscular activity" 1971
    • [44] Fetz and Finocchio "Operant conditioning of isolated activity in specific muscles and precentral cells" 1972
    • [45] Fetz and Finocchio 1975 "Correlations between activity of motor cortex cells and arm muscles during operantly conditioned response patterns." 1975
    • [46] Schmidt "single neuron recording from motor cortex as a possible source of signals for control of external devices." 1980
  • microelectrode arrays solved one of the problems.
  • talk about how more neurons are needed.
  • Principles of BMIs: Evarts [66-68], neuronal modulations are highly variable [69-72].
    • [66] Evarts, E.V. (1966) Pyramidal tract activity associated with a conditioned hand movement in the monkey.
    • [67] Evarts, E.V. (1968) Relation of pyramidal tract activity to force exerted during voluntary movement.
    • [68] Evarts, E.V. (1968) A technique for recording activity of subcortical neurons in moving animals.
    • "THus, as much as neighboring neurons might display highly disinct firing modulation patterns during the execution of a particular movement, single-neuron firing can vary substantially from one trial to the next, despite the fact that the overt movements remain virtually identical. :
    • "averaging across large populations of neurons significantly reduces the variability of signals derived from single neurons [54, 69].
    • Should i mention this in thesis?
  • Better way to assimilate the BMI into the body is to have proprioceptive feedback.
  • suggest the same standard things to be improved, excluding electronics. :
    • electrodes / recording
    • decoding
    • incorporating plasticity
    • better prosthetics.
  • "multi-unit signals can also be efficiently used in BMI control [57] {318}.
  • Some groups have strongly claimed that recordings from a small number of neurons can be sufficient for good performance in a BMI. [55,56,63]
    • This is not Miguel's approach: more neurons confers accuracy [54{317},57,70] and reliability [69].
      • [70] Wessberg, J. and Nicolelis, M.A. (2004) Optimizing a linear algorithm for real-time robotic control using chronic cortical ensemble recordings in monkeys. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 16, 1022–1035
  • Still need new microelectrodes; electrodes become encapsulated by fibrous tissue and cells die in the vicinity of electrodes [77] {781}.
    • suggest anti-inflammatory coating, though the jury is out.
  • Initial wireless telemetry systems: [93-99]. [93]{315}
    • [94] Knutti, J.W. et al. (1979) An integrated circuit approach to totally implantable telemetry systems. Biotelem. Patient Monit. 6, 95–106
    • [97] Chien, C.N. and Jaw, F.S. (2005) Miniature telemetry system for the recording of action and field potentials. J. Neurosci. Methods 147
    • [98] {930}
    • [99] Morizio Morizio, J. et al. (2005) Fifteen-channel wireless headstage system for single-unit rat recordings.
    • [100] (of broader interest) Moxon, K.A. et al. (2004) Ceramic-based multisite electrode arrays for chronic single-neuron recording. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51, 647–656
  • nanotechnology probes that access the brain through the vasular system [101].
  • although a good number of linear and nonlinear algorithms have been proposed and tested [1,54,56,57,70,110-116], Wiener filters have proved sufficient [54,55,57,58,65,117].
  • almost 140 years ago Head and Holmes suggested that the body schema -- that is, the internal brain representation of one's body -- could extend itself to include a wielded tool.

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ref: -0 tags: the edge ideas future prediction date: 01-03-2011 19:26 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

Interesting ideas from __This Will Change Everything__

  • Daniel Dennett suggests that what is changing everything is the act of looking at what is changing everything: "When we look closely at looking closely, when we increase our investment in techniques for investing in techniques, this is what amplify uncertainties, what will change everything. We figure out how to game the system, and this initiates an arm race to control or prevent gaming of the system, which leads to new levels of gamesmanship, and so on."
    • Well said. I think this is an essential part of any creative economy.
  • The internet is humanity's growing global hindbrain: it attends itself with rote memory, managing commerce and markets, and doling out attention. This implies that eventually it will be a global forebrain
    • W. Danniel Hillis argues that it will do this through recursive hierarchical organization. But, that said, there is still no good way for making decisions with higher intelligence than each of the actors/voters. (really? are you sure this is not just an artifact of perception?)
  • Paul Saffo: "But there is one development that would fundamentally change everything: the discovert of nonhuman intelligences equal or superior to our own species. It would change everything because our crowded, quarreling species is lonely. Vastly, achingly, existentially lonely"
    • [If we do find someone/thing else:] "And despite the distance, of course we will try to talk to them. A third of us will try to conquer them, a third of us will seek to convert them, and the rest of us will try to sell them something". hah!
  • Mentioned: focus fusion technology and http://focusfusion.org/ -- looks excellent, the argument seems convincing. Why doesn't somebody throw some money at them, get it done and tested?
  • John Gottman paraphrases Peggy Sanday: "Military - or any hierarchical - social structure cannot last without external threat" Unfortunately, hierarchical structures (human and otherwise) also seem to be the best way for getting things done.

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ref: life-0 tags: enfranchised mind blog population wealth future date: 07-06-2009 21:43 gmt revision:0 [head]


  • Great article - I've been thinking along the same lines for some time now.
  • The idea is that if we can may everyone rich, then the will not need nor want to have more than 2-3 children. No need to change religion, political structure - just wealth. quote: "So the question then becomes, can the planet support 6-20 billion people each making $120K a year on average?" I hope so!