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ref: -0 tags: Peter Ledochowitsch ECoG parylene fabrication MEMS date: 09-25-2014 16:54 gmt revision:0 [head]

IEEE-5734604 (pdf) Fabrication and testing of a large area, high density, parylene MEMS µECoG array

  • Details 5-layer platinum parylene process for high density ECoG arrays.

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ref: Ledochowitsch-2011.01 tags: Ledochowitsch transparent micro ECoG Peter date: 01-30-2013 07:01 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

PMID-22254956[0] A transparent μECoG array for simultaneous recording and optogenetic stimulation.

  • We present a 49-channel μECoG array with an electrode pitch of 800 μm and a 16-channel linear μECoG array with an electrode pitch of 200 μm.
  • The backing material was Parylene C. Transparent, sputtered indium tin oxide (ITO) was used in conjunction with e-beam evaporated gold to fabricate the electrodes

____References____

[0] Ledochowitsch P, Olivero E, Blanche T, Maharbiz MM, A transparent μECoG array for simultaneous recording and optogenetic stimulation.Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2011no Issue 2937-40 (2011)

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ref: Fuentes-2009.03 tags: Nicoelis DCS spinal cord stimulation PD Fuentes Petersson 6-OHDA date: 03-03-2012 02:46 gmt revision:3 [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-19299613[0] Spinal cord stimulation restores locomotion in animal models of Parkinson's disease.

  • Motivation: different levels of cortical oscillation during movement and rest (LFO decreased, medium-high freq increased); PD associated with abnormal synchronous corticostriatal oscillations.
  • In epilepsy patients, stimulation of peripheral nerve afferents is effective in desychronizing low-frequency neural activity, reducing the frequency and duration of seizures (8,9,10) PMID-11050139[1] PMID-16886985[2] PMID-18188148[3]
  • DCS (dorsal column stimulation)
    • Epidural, longitudal electrodes, horizontal electrical field.
    • Upper thoracic, mice.
    • 300Hz.
    • simpler and safer than brain surgery.
    • [24] DCS induces no increase in arousal. (Wall, PD. Brain 1970; 93:505.
  • used the tyrosine hydroxyalse inhibitor AMPT
  • M1 LFP: Osc around 1.5-4Hz and 10-15Hz enhanced; osc > 25Hz subdued.
  • DCS increased locomotion by 29x in depleted animals, and 4.9x in normal animals.
  • Also titrated L-DOPA with DAT-KO mice. Without dopamine, there is no movement.
    • DCS increased L-DOPA effectiveness by 5x (1/5 the dose was required)
  • Verified in a 6-OHDA lesion model in rats.
    • Lesioned animals moved more, sham moved less.
  • Activation of locomotion is via striatal medium spiny neurons projecting to the output nuclei of the basal ganglia [26 PMID-8402406[4] ,27 PMID-1695404[5]].
  • In PD, with reduced striatal dopamine levels, the activation threshold of the projection neurons from the striatum is significantly increased [25] PMID-17916382[6].

____References____

[0] Fuentes R, Petersson P, Siesser WB, Caron MG, Nicolelis MA, Spinal cord stimulation restores locomotion in animal models of Parkinson's disease.Science 323:5921, 1578-82 (2009 Mar 20)
[1] Fanselow EE, Reid AP, Nicolelis MA, Reduction of pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure activity in awake rats by seizure-triggered trigeminal nerve stimulation.J Neurosci 20:21, 8160-8 (2000 Nov 1)
[2] DeGiorgio CM, Shewmon A, Murray D, Whitehurst T, Pilot study of trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS) for epilepsy: a proof-of-concept trial.Epilepsia 47:7, 1213-5 (2006 Jul)
[3] George MS, Nahas Z, Bohning DE, Lomarev M, Denslow S, Osenbach R, Ballenger JC, Vagus nerve stimulation: a new form of therapeutic brain stimulation.CNS Spectr 5:11, 43-52 (2000 Nov)
[4] Brudzynski SM, Wu M, Mogenson GJ, Decreases in rat locomotor activity as a result of changes in synaptic transmission to neurons within the mesencephalic locomotor region.Can J Physiol Pharmacol 71:5-6, 394-406 (1993 May-Jun)
[5] DeLong MR, Primate models of movement disorders of basal ganglia origin.Trends Neurosci 13:7, 281-5 (1990 Jul)
[6] Grillner S, Wallén P, Saitoh K, Kozlov A, Robertson B, Neural bases of goal-directed locomotion in vertebrates--an overview.Brain Res Rev 57:1, 2-12 (2008 Jan)