m8ta
You are not authenticated, login.
text: sort by
tags: modified
type: chronology
{549} is owned by tlh24.
{1367}
hide / / print
ref: -0 tags: microstimulation rat cortex measurement ICMS spread date: 01-26-2017 02:52 gmt revision:0 [head]

PMID-12878710 Spatiotemporal effects of microstimulation in rat neocortex: a parametric study using multielectrode recordings.

  • Measure using extracellular ephys a spread of ~ 1.3mm from near-threshold microstimulation.
  • Study seems thorough despite limited techniques.

{875}
hide / / print
ref: Cosman-2005.12 tags: microstimulation RF pain neural tissue ICMS date: 09-04-2014 18:10 gmt revision:14 [13] [12] [11] [10] [9] [8] [head]

One of the goals/needs of the lab is to be able to stimluate and record nervous tissue at the same time. We do not have immediate access to optogenetic methods, but what about lower frequency EM stimulation? The idea: if you put the stimulation frequency outside the recording system bandwidth, there is no need to switch, and indeed no reason you can't stimulate and record at the same time.

Hence, I very briefly checked for the effects of RF stimulation on nervous tissue.

  • PMID-16336478[0] Electric and Thermal Field Effects in Tissue Around Radiofrequency Electrodes
    • Most clinical response to pulsed RF is heat ablation - the RF pulses can generate 'hot spots' c.f. continuous RF.
    • Secondary effect may be electroporation; this is not extensively investigation.
    • Suggests that 500kHz pulses can be 'rectified' by the membrane, and hence induce sodium influx, hence neuron activation.
    • They propose that some of the clinical effects of pulsed RF stimulation is mediated through LTD response.
  • {1297} -- original!
  • PMID-14206843[2] Electrical Stimulation of Excitable Tissue by Radio-Frequency Transmission
    • Actually not so interesting -- deals with RF powered pacemakers and bladder stimulators; both which include rectification.
  • Pulsed and Continous Radiofrequency Current Adjacent to the Cervical Dorsal Root Ganglion of the Rat Induces Late Cellular Activity in the Dorsal Horn
    • shows that neurons are activated by pulsed RF, albeit through c-Fos staining. Electrodes were much larger in this study.
    • Also see PMID-15618777[3] associated editorial which calls for more extensive clinical, controlled testing. The editorial gives some very interesting personal details - scientists from the former Soviet bloc!
  • PMID-16310722[4] Pulsed radiofrequency applied to dorsal root ganglia causes a selective increase in ATF3 in small neurons.
    • used 20ms pulses of 500kHz.
    • Small diameter fibers are differentially activated.
    • Pulsed RF induces activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), which has been used as an indicator of cellular stress in a variety of tissues.
    • However, there were no particular signs of axonal damage; hence the clinically effective analgesia may be reflective of a decrease in cell activity, synaptic release (or general cell health?)
    • Implies that RF may be dangerous below levels that cause tissue heating.
  • Cellphone Radiation Increases Brain Activity
    • Implies that Rf energy - here presumably in 800-900Mhz or 1800-1900Mhz - is capable of exciting nervous tissue without electroporation.
  • Random idea: I wonder if it is possible to get a more active signal out of an electrode by stimulating with RF? (simultaneously?)
  • Human auditory perception of pulsed radiofrequency energy
    • Evicence seems to support the theory that it is local slight heating -- 6e-5 C -- that creates pressure waves which can be heard by humans, guinea pigs, etc.
    • Unlikely to be direct neural stimulation.
    • High frequency hearing is required for this
      • Perhaps because it is lower harmonics of thead resonance that are heard (??).

Conclusion: worth a shot, especially given the paper by Alberts et al 1972.

  • There should be a frequency that sodium channels react to, without inducing cellular stress.
  • Must be very careful to not heat the tissue - need a power controlled RF stimulator
    • The studies above seem to work with voltage-control (?!)

____References____

[0] Cosman ER Jr, Cosman ER Sr, Electric and thermal field effects in tissue around radiofrequency electrodes.Pain Med 6:6, 405-24 (2005 Nov-Dec)
[1] Alberts WW, Wright EW Jr, Feinstein B, Gleason CA, Sensory responses elicited by subcortical high frequency electrical stimulation in man.J Neurosurg 36:1, 80-2 (1972 Jan)
[2] GLENN WW, HAGEMAN JH, MAURO A, EISENBERG L, FLANIGAN S, HARVARD M, ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF EXCITABLE TISSUE BY RADIO-FREQUENCY TRANSMISSION.Ann Surg 160no Issue 338-50 (1964 Sep)
[3] Richebé P, Rathmell JP, Brennan TJ, Immediate early genes after pulsed radiofrequency treatment: neurobiology in need of clinical trials.Anesthesiology 102:1, 1-3 (2005 Jan)
[4] Hamann W, Abou-Sherif S, Thompson S, Hall S, Pulsed radiofrequency applied to dorsal root ganglia causes a selective increase in ATF3 in small neurons.Eur J Pain 10:2, 171-6 (2006 Feb)

{1074}
hide / / print
ref: Gubellini-2009.09 tags: DBS PD 2009 review historical microstimulation ICMS chronaxie rheobase date: 02-22-2012 14:33 gmt revision:11 [10] [9] [8] [7] [6] [5] [head]

PMID-19559747[0] Deep brain stimulation in neurological diseases and experimental models: from molecule to complex behavior.

  • Wow, DBS has been used since the 1950s for localization of lesion targets; in the 1960's was discovered to alleviate tremor; 70s and 80s targeted at the cerebellum for treatimng movement disorders or epilepsy.
  • Extensive list of all the other studies & their stimulation protocols.
  • Large mylenated fibers have chronaxies ranging aruond 30-200 us, while cell bodies and dendrites this value is around 1-10ms. (Rank, 1975).
    • Lapique: minimum energy is a/b, where b is the rhreobase (the minimal electric current of infinite duration that results in an action potential), and chronaxie is the minimum time over which an electric current double the strength of the rheobase needs to be applied in order ti stimulate a nerve cell.
    • Q(t)t=U rh(1+t cht) \frac{Q(t)}{t} = U_{rh}(1 + \frac{t_ch}{t}) where U rhU_{rh} is the rheobase and t cht_{ch} is the chronaxie.
    • you can simplify this to: I th=I rh(1+t cht) I_{th} = I_{rh} (1 + \frac{t_{ch}}{t}) where I rhI_{rh} is the rheobase current and I thI_{th} is the threshold current (Irnich, 2002).
  • Measurements of chronaxie in VIM and GPi found values of 60-75us, hence DBS effects are likely mediated through the activation of afferent and efferent axons. (Holsheimer et al 2000a, 2000b)
    • In line with these findings, cortical stimulation also results in the activation of afferent and efferent axons (Nowak and Bullier, 1998a, 1998b PMID-9504844).
    • Ustim can result in cell body hyperpolarization coupled with action potential initiation in the axon (McIntyre and Grill, 1999; Nowak and Bullier 1998a b).
  • Stimulation depends on the direction of the electric field, obviously. When the axons and E\vec{E} are ||.
  • Acute stimulation is different from chronic DBS (as used in patients); it may be a mistake to extrapolate conclusions.
    • DBS electrodes become encapsulated, and current delivered hence decreases.
  • Strong placebo effect of just the DBS surgery.
    • Implantation of electrodes alone had therapeutic benefit in 6-mo trial. (Mann et al 2009).
  • mean lead impedance is 400-120 ohms in clinical DBS leads, PT-IR.
    • platinum is relatively non-toxic to the brain when compared to metals such as gold or rhodium.
  • If stimulation exceeds 30 uC/cm^2/phase, there is a risk of tissue damage. This equates to 30ma.
  • Stainless steel electrodes are damadged by days of in vivo stimulation -- metal ions are lost.
  • STN neurons spontaneously oscillate due to leak Ca currents and C-activated K channels.
  • STN DBS seems to disrupt abnormal synchronized activity recorded in the BG-thalamocortical loops in PD. (meta-analysis of several studies).
  • STN DBS seems to reduce FR in the SNr.
  • STN excitotoxic leasion in rats causes increased impulsivity, impaired accuracy, premature responses, and more attention to food reward location in rats.
    • There is a hyperdirect pathway from the medial prefrontal cortex to the STN; breaking this decreases attention and perseverance.
    • STN HFS sometimes induces impulsive behavior in humans, with which this is consistent. (This may be sequelae from levodopa treatment).
    • STN HFS often causes weight gain in patients. But it might be because they can eat more or are more 'motivated at life'.
    • Controlled studies in rats show that STN lesion does not effect quantity consumed, either food, ehanol, or cocaine.
      • Differential effect when the reward was food vs. cocaine -- the STN may modulate the reward system based on the nature of the reward.
  • Huh: HFS of the ZI (zona incerta) has been reported to be superior to STN HFS for improving contralateral parkinsonism in PD patients.
    • Could be current diffusion into the STN, however, as lesioning this structure in rats has less effect than lesioning STN.
    • See also {1098}.
  • Chronic GPi DBS does not allow reducing L-DOPA dosage, unlike STN stimulation, but it is a good treatment for dyskinesia.
  • VIM treatment is very effective for tremor, but it does not treat the other motor symptoms of PD. Furthermore, it wears off after a few years.
    • CM/Pf seems like an even better target (Center median / parafasicular complex of the thalamus -- see {1119}.
  • DBS in the PPN (pedunculo pontine nucleus, brainstem target of the BG) at 10 HZ induces a feeling of well-being , concomitant with a modest improvement in motor function; no effect at 80 Hz.
  • Dystonia: GPi is a efficacious target for DBS.
    • Full effect takes a year (!), suggesting that the effect is through reorganization of the BG / neuroplascticity.
  • ET : lesions of the VIM, STN, or cerebellum can reduce symptoms. DBS of the VIM, STN, or ZI all have been found effective.
  • Huntington's disease involves degeneration of the projection neurons from the caudate and putamen.
    • HD affects motor, cognitive, and psychiatric functioning.
  • Drug addiction: inactivating the Nucelus accumbens (NAc) may reduce motivation to obtain the drug, but it may also reduce the motivation to do anything (apathy).
  • GPi DBS also a target for reducing chorea.
  • STN DBS may worsen treatment-resistant-depression; this seen in an animal model, and anecdotally in humans with PD.
  • OCD can be treated with DBS through the internal capsule extending toward the NAc / ventral striatum.
    • side effects include hypomania or anxiety.
    • Alas there is no satisfactory animal model of OCD, which hampers research.

____References____

[0] Gubellini P, Salin P, Kerkerian-Le Goff L, Baunez C, Deep brain stimulation in neurological diseases and experimental models: from molecule to complex behavior.Prog Neurobiol 89:1, 79-123 (2009 Sep)

{1106}
hide / / print
ref: -0 tags: microstim ICMS axons soma Nowak NMDA date: 01-27-2012 23:30 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

PMID-9504843 Axons, but not cell bodies, are activated by electrical stimulation in cortical gray matter. I. Evidence from chronaxie measurements.

  • Slice experiments / in vitro.
  • The chronaxie for orthodromic activation was similar to that for axonal activation, but was 40 times smaller than the chronaxie for direct cell body activation. This suggests that, whenever a postsynaptic response is elicited after electrical stimulation of the cortical gray matter, axons (either axonal branches or axon initial segments), but not cell bodies, are the neuronal elements activated.

PMID-9504844 Axons, but not cell bodies, are activated by electrical stimulation in cortical gray matter. II. Evidence from selective inactivation of cell bodies and axon initial segments.

  • Blocked soma and proximal axons / dendrites from firing AP through iontophoresis of NMDA.
  • When the NMDA-induced depolarization block was performed at the site of electrical stimulation, an unexpected increase in the amplitude of the orthodromic (backwards, into the white matter) responses was observed.
    • Possibly due to an increase in axonal excitability (?)
    • Superexitability eventually washed out, leading to responses that was 15-20% lower than before NMDA soma / proximal axon block.
  • "Since the neocortex is organised as a network of local and long-range reciprocal connections, great attention must be paid to the interpretation of data obtained with electrical stimulation."

{918}
hide / / print
ref: Romo-1998.03 tags: Romo ICMS stimulation discrimination flutter 1998 date: 01-06-2012 23:43 gmt revision:4 [3] [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-9537321[0] Somatosensory discrimination based on cortical microstimulation.

  • trained monkeys to discriminate flutter frequencies; showed it generalized to ICMS stimulation, in that they could compare mechanical and electrical frequencies.
  • Electrodes in area 3b of S1.
  • Showed that cortical neurons are entrained to peripheral stimulation freq.

____References____

[0] Romo R, Hernández A, Zainos A, Salinas E, Somatosensory discrimination based on cortical microstimulation.Nature 392:6674, 387-90 (1998 Mar 26)

{240}
hide / / print
ref: MolinaLuna-2007.03 tags: ICMS microstimulation cortical thin-film electrodes histology MEA date: 01-03-2012 22:54 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

PMID-17178423[0] Cortical stimulation mapping using epidurally implanted thin-film microelectrode arrays.

  • they claim that thin-film electrodes are better than microelectrode arrays, as they show less evidence of cortical damage.
    • thin-film electrodes show higher reproducability
    • more accurate spatial arrangement.
  • epidural stimulation (they were implanted between the dura and skull)

____References____

[0] Molina-Luna K, Buitrago MM, Hertler B, Schubring M, Haiss F, Nisch W, Schulz JB, Luft AR, Cortical stimulation mapping using epidurally implanted thin-film microelectrode arrays.J Neurosci Methods 161:1, 118-25 (2007 Mar 30)

{941}
hide / / print
ref: Penfield-1937 tags: Penfield 1937 motor cortex stimulation ICMS human neurosurgery electrodes date: 01-03-2012 22:08 gmt revision:3 [2] [1] [0] [head]

No PMID / bibtex penfield-1937. Somatic motor and sensory representation in the cerebral cortex of man as studied by electrical stimulation

  • Fritsch and Hitzig (1870) [0] cited as the first paper in electrical excitation of the CNS.
  • Good review of the scientific experiments thereafter, including stimulation to S1 by Ferrier, work with apes etc.
  • Central sulcus called the 'Rolandic fissure'.
  • Interesting! quote:

The account of Bartholow (1874) is interesting to say the least and may be cited. His patient was a 30-year old-domestic. As an infant this unfortunate had chanced to fall into the fire, burning her scalp so badly that " hair was never reproduced." A piece of whale bone in the wig she was forced to wear irritated the scarred scalp and, by her statement, three months before she was admitted, an ulcer appeared. When she presented herself for relief, this had eroded the skull over a space 2 in. in diameter " where the pulsations of the brain are plainly seen." Although " rather feeble-minded " Bartholow observed that Mary returned replies to all questions and no sensory or motor loss could be made out in spite of the fact that brain substance apparently had been injured in the process of evacuation of pus from the infected area. The doctor believed, therefore, that fine insulated needles could be introduced without further damage.

While the electrodes were in the right side Bartholow decided to try the effect of more current. ' Her countenance exhibited great distress and she began to cry. Very soon the left hand was extended as if in the act of taking hold of some object in front of her; the arm presently was agitated with clonic spasms ; her eyes became fixed with pupils widely dilated ; the lips were blue and she frothed at the mouth ; her breathing became stertorous, she lost conscious-ness and was violently convulsed on the left side. This convulsion lasted for five minutes and was succeeded by coma. She returned to consciousness in twenty minutes from the beginning of the attack and complained of some weakness and vertigo." Three days after this stimulation, following a series of right-sided seizures, the patient died.

  • Relatively modern neurosurgical procedures.
  • They observe changes to blood circulation prior epileptic procedures. wow!
  • Very careful hand-drawn maps of what they have observed. Important, as you'll probably never get this trough an IRB. It pays to be meticulous.

____References____

[0] Fritsch G, Hitzig E, Electric excitability of the cerebrum (Uber die elektrische Erregbarkeit des Grosshirns).Epilepsy Behav 15:2, 123-30 (2009 Jun)

{988}
hide / / print
ref: Butovas-2007.04 tags: Butovas Schwarts ICMS stimulation rat barrel cortex date: 01-03-2012 06:55 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

PMID-17419757[0] Detection psychophysics of intracortical microstimulation in rat primary somatosensory cortex.

  • headposted rats, ICMS to barrel cortex
  • single pulse threshold = 2 nC, around the threshold for evocation of short-latency action potentials near an electrode.
  • one pulse saturated at 80% correct.
  • multiple pulses had a higher rate, though this saturated at 15 pulses.
  • double pulse optimal in terms of power / discrimination.

____References____

[0] Butovas S, Schwarz C, Detection psychophysics of intracortical microstimulation in rat primary somatosensory cortex.Eur J Neurosci 25:7, 2161-9 (2007 Apr)

{987}
hide / / print
ref: ODoherty-2009.01 tags: Odoherty Nicolelis ICMS stimulation BMI BMBI date: 01-03-2012 06:55 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

PMID-19750199[0] A brain-machine interface instructed by direct intracortical microstimulation.

  • Both and and brain control, cud by ICMS to S1, Mango and Nectarine.
    • PP ineffective. Despite Doty [1].
  • pretty careful site mapping (fig 1).
  • SUA classified by less that 1 per 1000 ISI < 1.6ms.
  • pursuit & center out tasks.
  • Correlation coeficient (R^2) not so high across all sessions - 0.5 (?).
  • ICMS learning, once the monkey began to get it, was rapid.

____References____

[0] O'Doherty JE, Lebedev MA, Hanson TL, Fitzsimmons NA, Nicolelis MA, A brain-machine interface instructed by direct intracortical microstimulation.Front Integr Neurosci 3no Issue 20 (2009)
[1] Doty RW, Electrical stimulation of the brain in behavioral context.Annu Rev Psychol 20no Issue 289-320 (1969)

{984}
hide / / print
ref: ODoherty-2011 tags: Odoherty Nicolelis ICMS stimulation randomly patterned gamma distribution date: 01-03-2012 06:55 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

IEEE-6114258 (pdf) Towards a Brain-Machine-Brain Interface:Virtual Active Touch Using Randomly Patterned Intracortical Microstimulation.

  • Key result: monkeys can discriminate between constant-frequency ICMS and aperiodic pulses, hence can discriminate some fine temporal aspects of ICMS.
  • Also discussed blanking methods for stimulating and recording at the same time (on different electrodes, using the randomized stimulation patterns).

____References____

O'Doherty, J. and Lebedev, M. and Li, Z. and Nicolelis, M. Towards a Brain #x2013;Machine #x2013;Brain Interface:Virtual Active Touch Using Randomly Patterned Intracortical Microstimulation Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, IEEE Transactions on PP 99 1 (2011)

{830}
hide / / print
ref: Rolston-2009.01 tags: ICMS artifacts stimulation Rolston Potter recording BMI date: 01-03-2012 02:38 gmt revision:3 [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-19668698[0] A low-cost multielectrode system for data acquisition enabling real-time closed-loop processing with rapid recovery from stimulation artifacts

  • Well written, well tested, but fundamentally simple system - only two poles active high-pass, one pole low-pass.
  • With TBSI headstages the stimulation artifact is brief - figure 8 shows < 4ms.
  • Includes NeuroWriter software, generously open-sourced (but alas windows only - C#).

____References____

[0] Rolston JD, Gross RE, Potter SM, A low-cost multielectrode system for data acquisition enabling real-time closed-loop processing with rapid recovery from stimulation artifacts.Front Neuroengineering 2no Issue 12 (2009)

{983}
hide / / print
ref: ODoherty-2011.1 tags: nicolelis odoherty nicolelis 2011 active tactile BMBI stimulation ICMS unscented Kalman filter date: 01-01-2012 18:27 gmt revision:3 [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-21976021[0] Active tactile exploration using a brain-machine-brain interface.

  • Tricky part was the temporal interleaving. 50ms stim / 50ms record.
    • No proof a priori as S1 stim could affect M1 processing.
  • Real perception, as the stimulation resulted from motor commands (through a BMI).
  • RAT = rewarded ICMS (200Hs pulses)
  • UAT = unrewarded ICMS, 400Hs, skip every 100ms.
  • NAT = no ICMS.
  • So short. damn you, nature.

____References____

[0] O'Doherty JE, Lebedev MA, Ifft PJ, Zhuang KZ, Shokur S, Bleuler H, Nicolelis MA, Active tactile exploration using a brain-machine-brain interface.Nature 479:7372, 228-31 (2011 Oct 5)

{974}
hide / / print
ref: Fitzsimmons-2007.05 tags: Fitzsimmons nicolelis stimluation ICMS owl monkeys date: 01-01-2012 00:12 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

PMID-17522304[0] Primate reaching cued by multichannel spatiotemporal cortical microstimulation.

  • Good intro and discussion. The rest of it is familiar - was there!
  • Monkeys did not immediately generalize vibration stimuli to ICMS. But then again, owl monkeys are not terribly intelligent. c.f. Romo.

____References____

[0] Fitzsimmons NA, Drake W, Hanson TL, Lebedev MA, Nicolelis MA, Primate reaching cued by multichannel spatiotemporal cortical microstimulation.J Neurosci 27:21, 5593-602 (2007 May 23)

{962}
hide / / print
ref: Harris-2009.06 tags: Bartholow 1874 Mary experiment stimulation ICMS date: 12-29-2011 05:13 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

PMID-19286295[0] Probing the human brain with stimulating electrodes: The story of Roberts Bartholow’s (1874) experiment on Mary Rafferty

  • Excellent review / history.
  • Actual citation: Experimental investigations into the functions of the human brain" The American Journal of the medical Sciences 1874
  • Actual subject: Marry Rafferty
  • Around his time people were shifting from using intuition and observation to direct treatment to using empiricism & science, especially from work on laboratory animals.
  • One of the innovations that could not be tolerated by his colleagues was the "physiological investigations of drugs by the destruction of animal life." He was a bit of an outsider, and not terribly well liked.
  • Before then the cortex was seen to be insensitive to stimulation of any kind.
  • Ferrier 1974b: in the striatum all movements are integrated which are differentiated in the cortex" -- striatal stimulation produces general contraction, not specific contraction.
  • Ferrier 1873 was the first to discover that AC stimulation yielded more prolonged and natural movements than DC.
  • The Dura mater is extremely sensitive to pain.
  • Mary Rafferty seems to have had a tumor (he calls it an ulcer) in the meninges (epithelioma).
  • He probably spread infection into her brain through the stimulating needles.

____References____

[0] Harris LJ, Almerigi JB, Probing the human brain with stimulating electrodes: the story of Roberts Bartholow's (1874) experiment on Mary Rafferty.Brain Cogn 70:1, 92-115 (2009 Jun)

{963}
hide / / print
ref: Shinkman-1974.06 tags: Shinkman Bruce Pfingst operant conditioning visual cortex cat ICMS 1974 stimulation date: 12-29-2011 05:13 gmt revision:4 [3] [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-4598035[0] Operant conditioning of single-unit response patterns in visual cortex.

  • In cat V1 -- suprising, this is usually considered to be sensory.
  • implanted bilater tripolar stimulating electrodes aimed at the lateral hypothalamus. These were tested for self-stimulation, and preferred locations/currents were selected for optimal ICS reinforcement.
    • 200 bar presses in 8 minute test.
  • Anesthetized, immobilized, head-restrained, contact-lens focused cats.
  • Back projected stimuli onto a screen 50 cm from eye ; dot, bar, or small spot was effective in triggering patterned response, as with many of these studies.
  • For conditioning: set a threshold at the third quartile (1/4 of trials exceeded threshold); comparator circuit counted the number of spikes during stimulus presentation, and if threshold was exceeded, reinforcing ICS was delivered.
    • Reinforcing ICS started 300ms after visual stimulus and lasted 500ms.
  • Conditioning was deemed successful if the mean trial firing rate for the last 50 conditioned trials had a mean firing rate > 30% larger than the first 50 control trials.
    • While recording some cells, ICS reinforcement was delivered at random as control.
  • Conditioning produced changes within stimulus presentation but not outside.
  • They consider the use of an immobilized subject is a pro -- better control, rules out alternative explanations based on motor feedback.

____References____

[0] Shinkman PG, Bruce CJ, Pfingst BE, Operant conditioning of single-unit response patterns in visual cortex.Science 184:4142, 1194-6 (1974 Jun 14)

{919}
hide / / print
ref: Tehovnik-1996.03 tags: ICMS technique Tehovnik MIT 1996 current density microstimulation date: 12-29-2011 05:11 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

PMID-8815302[0] Electrical stimulation of neural tissue to evoke behavioral responses

  • reference to justify our current levels.
  • radial dispersion of current, inverse square falloff of excitability.
  • low currents (10 ua) can activate 10-1000 of neurons in cat M1 (allegedly).

____References____

[0] Tehovnik EJ, Electrical stimulation of neural tissue to evoke behavioral responses.J Neurosci Methods 65:1, 1-17 (1996 Mar)

{924}
hide / / print
ref: Wyrwicka-1966.01 tags: ICMS brainstem stimulation feeding prey chasing VTA date: 12-28-2011 20:44 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

PMID-5941514[0] Feeding induced in cats by electrical stimulation of the brain stem.

  • tested in cats.
  • stimulation points in the lateral hypothalamus (makes sense, controlls hunger)
  • half in ventral tegmental area (VTA)
  • aphygia is induced by lesions of the lateral hypothalamus.
  • in one experiment, the meat in the bowl was replaced with a banana. "Upon stimulation the cat quickly approached the bowl, sniffed the banana, turned away (in some disgust and frustration!?), searched the chamber, returned to the banana etc, but would not eat the banana."

____References____

[0] Wyrwicka W, Doty RW, Feeding induced in cats by electrical stimulation of the brain stem.Exp Brain Res 1:2, 152-60 (1966)

{834}
hide / / print
ref: Brown-2008.03 tags: microstimulation recording artifact supression MEA ICMS date: 12-28-2011 20:43 gmt revision:3 [2] [1] [0] [head]

IEEE-4464125 (pdf) Stimulus-Artifact Elimination in a Multi-Electrode System

  • Stimulate and record on the same electrode within 3ms; record on adjacent electrodes within 500us.
  • Target at MEAs, again.
  • Notes that very small charge mismatches of 1% or less, which is common and acceptable in traditional analog circuit designs, generates an artifact that saturates the neural amp signal chain.
  • for stimulating & recording on the same electrode, the the residual charge must be brought down to 1/1e5 the stimulating charge (or less).
  • paper follows upon {833} -- shared author, Blum -- especially in the idea of using active feedback to cancel artifact charge & associated voltage.
  • target the active feedback for keeping all amplifier out of saturation.
  • vary highpass filter poles during artifact supression (!)
  • bias currents of 1fA on the feedback highpass stage. yikes.

Brown EA, Ross JD, Blum RA, Yoonkey N, Wheeler BC, and DeWeerth SP (2008) Stimulus-Artifact Elimination in a Multi-Electrode System. IEEE TRans. Biomed. Circuit Sys. 2. 10-21

{944}
hide / / print
ref: Hassell-2007.08 tags: microstimulator ICMS ASIC Hassel date: 12-20-2011 06:17 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

IEEE-4352820 (pdf) Constant-Current Adjustable-Waveform Microstimulator for an Implantable Hybrid Neural Prosthesis

  • Focus on hybrid electro-chemical prosthesis: electrical release of glutamate. For "native output modality".
    • For use in neuronal culture, at least initially.
  • Talk about constant-current sources, typically current-mirrors. Want the following:
    • Linearity
    • High output impedance.
    • voltage compliance.
    • Are these things necessarily well motivated? constant power may be better. eh.
  • WAnt to cascode current output for greater output impedance.
  • They appear not to have completed the ASIC (at time of publication).

____References____

Hassell, T.J. and Jedlicka, S.S. and Rickus, J.L. and Irazoqui, P.P. Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2007. EMBS 2007. 29th Annual International Conference of the IEEE 2436 -2439 (2007)

{622}
hide / / print
ref: Tehovnik-2006.08 tags: ICMS cortical microstimulation pyramidal neurons date: 12-20-2011 06:08 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

PMID-16835359[0] Direct and indirect activation of cortical neurons by electrical microstimulation.

  • looked at ICMS via single-cell recording, behavior, and fMRI.
  • These properties suggested that microstimulation activates the most excitable elements in cortex, that is, by and large the fibers of the pyramidal cells.
    • this is a useful result to perhaps reference..

____References____

[0] Tehovnik EJ, Tolias AS, Sultan F, Slocum WM, Logothetis NK, Direct and indirect activation of cortical neurons by electrical microstimulation.J Neurophysiol 96:2, 512-21 (2006 Aug)

{529}
hide / / print
ref: delgado-0 tags: Delgado roborat ICMS stimulation control date: 12-16-2011 06:41 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

quote:

All the loose speculation provoked by roborats is ironic considering that the experiment is just a small-scale replay of a major media event that is 40 years old. In 1964, José Delgado, a neuroscientist from Yale University, stood in a Spanish bullring as a bull with a radio-equipped array of electrodes, or "stimoceiver," implanted in its brain charged toward him. When Delgado pushed a button on a radio transmitter he was holding, the bull stopped in its tracks. Delgado pushed another button, and the bull obediently turned to the right and trotted away. The New York Times hailed the event as "probably the most spectacular demonstration ever performed of the deliberate modification of animal behavior through external control of the brain."

from: http://discovermagazine.com/2004/oct/cover

from: http://www.angelfire.com/or/mctrl/chap16.htm

{921}
hide / / print
ref: Mavoori-2005.1 tags: Fetz ICMS stim wireless recording flash 2005 date: 12-16-2011 04:21 gmt revision:3 [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-16102841[0] An autonomous implantable computer for neural recording and stimulation in unrestrained primates.

  • Pretty basic: AFE + bandpass filter, 11.7ksps ADC, uC spike discriminator, microstimulator, IRDA link, 4Mbit flash (why so small? -- 2005).
  • Device could run for weeks at a time.
  • Used in his Hebbian learning task [1]

____References____

[0] Mavoori J, Jackson A, Diorio C, Fetz E, An autonomous implantable computer for neural recording and stimulation in unrestrained primates.J Neurosci Methods 148:1, 71-7 (2005 Oct 15)
[1] Jackson A, Mavoori J, Fetz EE, Long-term motor cortex plasticity induced by an electronic neural implant.Nature 444:7115, 56-60 (2006 Nov 2)

{920}
hide / / print
ref: Arfin-2009.07 tags: ICMS birdsong wireless stimulation ARfin 2009 MIT date: 12-16-2011 04:21 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

PMID-19386759[0] Wireless neural stimulation in freely behaving small animals.

  • Made a custom ASIC for delivering bipolar, biphasic current pulses.
  • 32 output channels.
  • Powered by small batteries
  • device in sleep state when not in use
  • controlled by inductive radio transfer with PWM modulation scheme.
  • Tested in Zebra finches, HVC: terminates song in all birds tested.
  • Impressive bit of engineering!

____References____

[0] Arfin SK, Long MA, Fee MS, Sarpeshkar R, Wireless neural stimulation in freely behaving small animals.J Neurophysiol 102:1, 598-605 (2009 Jul)

{532}
hide / / print
ref: bookmark-0 tags: Delgado Bulls microstimulation ICMS control implant date: 01-06-2008 18:05 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

http://www.biotele.com/Delgado.htm

  • stimulated the caudate to stop the charging bull.
  • interesting account of the later part of his life spent in Spain, when his popularity wained
  • Delgado still appears to have some quite radical tendencies, such as belief in the inexorable advance of technology, even if it is immoral/unethical.

{226}
hide / / print
ref: work notes-0 tags: web stimulator SUNY ICMS python webinterface project date: 03-26-2007 04:26 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

we are proud of this :)