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ref: Linsmeier-2011.01 tags: histology lund electrodes immune response fine flexible review Thelin date: 12-08-2015 23:57 gmt revision:6 [5] [4] [3] [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-21867803[0] Can histology solve the riddle of the nonfunctioning electrode? Factors influencing the biocompatibility of brain machine interfaces.

  • We show results from an ultrathin multichannel wire electrode that has been implanted in the rat cerebral cortex for 1 year.
    • 12um Pt-Ir wires in a 200um bundle coated with gelatin. See PMID-20551508[1]
    • Electrode was left in the rat cortex for 354 days
    • no clear GFAP staining or ED1 positive cells at the electrode tips.
  • To improve biocompatibility of implanted electrodes, we would like to suggest that free-floating, very small, flexible, and, in time, wireless electrodes would elicit a diminished cell encapsulation.
  • Suggest standardized methods for the electrode design, the electrode implantation method, and the analyses of cell reactions after implantation
  • somewhat of a review -- Stice, Biran 2005 [2] 2007 [3].
  • 50um is the recording distance Purcell 2009.
  • See also [4]
  • Study of neuronal density and ED1 reactivity / GFAP:
    • Even at 12 weeks the correlation between NeuN density and GFAP / ED1 was small -- r 2=0.12r^2 = 0.12
    • Note that DAPI labels many unknown cells in the vicinity of the electrode.

____References____

[0] Linsmeier CE, Thelin J, Danielsen N, Can histology solve the riddle of the nonfunctioning electrode? Factors influencing the biocompatibility of brain machine interfaces.Prog Brain Res 194no Issue 181-9 (2011)
[1] Lind G, Linsmeier CE, Thelin J, Schouenborg J, Gelatine-embedded electrodes--a novel biocompatible vehicle allowing implantation of highly flexible microelectrodes.J Neural Eng 7:4, 046005 (2010 Aug)
[2] Biran R, Martin DC, Tresco PA, Neuronal cell loss accompanies the brain tissue response to chronically implanted silicon microelectrode arrays.Exp Neurol 195:1, 115-26 (2005 Sep)
[3] Biran R, Martin DC, Tresco PA, The brain tissue response to implanted silicon microelectrode arrays is increased when the device is tethered to the skull.J Biomed Mater Res A 82:1, 169-78 (2007 Jul)
[4] Thelin J, Jörntell H, Psouni E, Garwicz M, Schouenborg J, Danielsen N, Linsmeier CE, Implant size and fixation mode strongly influence tissue reactions in the CNS.PLoS One 6:1, e16267 (2011 Jan 26)