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[0] Mehta MR, Cortico-hippocampal interaction during up-down states and memory consolidation.Nat Neurosci 10:1, 13-5 (2007 Jan)[1] Ji D, Wilson MA, Coordinated memory replay in the visual cortex and hippocampus during sleep.Nat Neurosci 10:1, 100-7 (2007 Jan)

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ref: -0 tags: NMDA spike hebbian learning states pyramidal cell dendrites date: 10-03-2018 01:15 gmt revision:0 [head]

PMID-20544831 The decade of the dendritic NMDA spike.

  • NMDA spikes occur in the finer basal, oblique, and tuft dendrites.
  • Typically 40-50 mV, up to 100's of ms in duration.
  • Look similar to cortical up-down states.
  • Permit / form the substrate for spatially and temporally local computation on the dendrites that can enhance the representational or computational repertoire of individual neurons.

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ref: Hoffman-2007.1 tags: up down states neocortex SWS date: 03-20-2009 01:27 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

PMID-17978020[0] The Upshot of Up States in the Neocortex: From Slow Oscillations to Memory Formation

  • slow waves are caused by spreading synchronous up/down depolarizations in the neocortex during SWS
    • the slow waves are thought to be generated intrinsically (?)
  • cortex is insensitive in up states, but highly sensitive to thalamic stimulation in down states? humm, need to see the data for that - from slices.
  • quote: "According to some theories of memory consolidation (Marr, 1971Go; Buzs├íki, 1989Go; Squire, 1992Go; McClelland et al., 1995Go), memories are thought to be minted rapidly in the hippocampus during behavior and transferred to the neocortex during slow-wave sleep for long-term storage."
  • there is other stuff about 50-150 Hz activation in the hippocampus leading to neocortical activation, and that this is associated with transfer from labile hippocampus to long-term neocortex.
  • the review gives an impression of not being as concrete as, say, Buzsaki.


[0] Hoffman KL, Battaglia FP, Harris K, MacLean JN, Marshall L, Mehta MR, The upshot of up states in the neocortex: from slow oscillations to memory formation.J Neurosci 27:44, 11838-41 (2007 Oct 31)

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ref: Mehta-2007.01 tags: hippocampus visual cortex wilson replay sleep learning states date: 03-09-2009 18:53 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

PMID-17189946[0] Cortico-hippocampal interaction during up-down states and memory consolidation.

  • (from the associated review) Good pictorial description of how the hippocampus may impinge order upon the cortex:
    • During sleep the cortex is spontaneously and randomly active. Hippocampal activity is similarly disorganized.
    • During waking, the mouse/rat moves about in the environment, activating a sequence of place cells. The weights of the associated place cells are modified to reflect this sequence.
    • When the rat falls back to sleep, the hippocampus is still not random, and replays a compressed copy of the day's events to the cortex, which can then (and with other help, eg. ACh), learn/consolidate it.
  • see [1].


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ref: Kerr-2004.01 tags: UP_DOWN states striatum cortex spike timing date: 0-0-2007 0:0 revision:0 [head]

PMID-14749432 Action Potential Timing Determines Dendritic Calcium during Striatal Up-States

  • striatum has up/down states too!
  • only read the abstract.