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[0] Fetz EE, Perlmutter SI, Prut Y, Functions of mammalian spinal interneurons during movement.Curr Opin Neurobiol 10:6, 699-707 (2000 Dec)

[0] Allman JM, Hakeem A, Erwin JM, Nimchinsky E, Hof P, The anterior cingulate cortex. The evolution of an interface between emotion and cognition.Ann N Y Acad Sci 935no Issue 107-17 (2001 May)

[0] Rózsa B, Katona G, Kaszás A, Szipöcs R, Vizi ES, Dendritic nicotinic receptors modulate backpropagating action potentials and long-term plasticity of interneurons.Eur J Neurosci 27:2, 364-77 (2008 Jan)

[0] Maravita A, Iriki A, Tools for the body (schema).Trends Cogn Sci 8:2, 79-86 (2004 Feb)[1] Iriki A, Tanaka M, Iwamura Y, Coding of modified body schema during tool use by macaque postcentral neurones.Neuroreport 7:14, 2325-30 (1996 Oct 2)

[0] Sabelli HC, Mosnaim AD, Vazquez AJ, Giardina WJ, Borison RL, Pedemonte WA, Biochemical plasticity of synaptic transmission: a critical review of Dale's Principle.Biol Psychiatry 11:4, 481-524 (1976 Aug)[1] Sulzer D, Rayport S, Dale's principle and glutamate corelease from ventral midbrain dopamine neurons.Amino Acids 19:1, 45-52 (2000)[2] Burnstock G, Do some nerve cells release more than one transmitter?Neuroscience 1:4, 239-48 (1976 Aug)

[0] Ferrari PF, Rozzi S, Fogassi L, Mirror neurons responding to observation of actions made with tools in monkey ventral premotor cortex.J Cogn Neurosci 17:2, 212-26 (2005 Feb)

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ref: -0 tags: juxtacellular recording gold mushroom cultured hippocampal neurons Spira date: 02-01-2017 02:44 gmt revision:7 [6] [5] [4] [3] [2] [1] [head]

Large-Scale Juxtacellular Recordings from Cultured Hippocampal Neurons by an Array of Gold-Mushroom Shaped Microelectrodes

  • Micrometer sized Au mushroom MEA electrodes.
  • Functionalized by poly-ethylene-imine (PEI, positively charged)/laminin (extracellular matrix protein) undergo a process to form juxtacellular junctions between the neurons and the gMµEs.
  • No figures, but:
    • Whereas substrate integrated planar MEA record FPs dominated by negative-peak or biphasic-signals with amplitudes typically ranging between 40-100 µV and a signal to noise ratio of ≤ 5,
    • The gMµE-MEA recordings were dominated by positive monophasic action potentials.
    • It is important to note that monophasic high peak amplitudes ≥ 100 µV are rarely obtained using planar electrodes arrays, whereas when using the gMµE-MEA, 34.48 % of the gMµEs recorded potentials ≥ 200 µV and 10.64 % recorded potentials in the range of 300-5,085 µV.
  • So, there is a distribution of coupling, approximately 10% "good".

PMID-27256971 Multisite electrophysiological recordings by self-assembled loose-patch-like junctions between cultured hippocampal neurons and mushroom-shaped microelectrodes.

  • Note 300uV - 1mV extracellular 'juxtacellular' action potentials from these mushroom recordings. This is 2 - 5x better than microwire extacellular in-vivo ephys; coupling is imperfect.
    • Sharp glass-insulated W electrodes, ~ 10Mohm, might achieve better SNR if driven carefully.
  • 2um mushroom cap Au electrodes, 1um diameter 1um long shaft
    • No coating, other than the rough one left by electroplating process.
    • Impedance 10 - 25 Mohm.
  • APs decline within a burst of up to 35% -- electrostatic reasons?
  • Most electrodes record more than one neuron, similar to in-vivo ephys, with less LFP coupling.

PMID-23380931 Multi-electrode array technologies for neuroscience and cardiology

  • The key to the multi-electrode-array ‘in-cell recording’ approach developed by us is the outcome of three converging cell biological principals:
    • (a) the activation of endocytotic-like mechanisms in which cultured Aplysia neurons are induced to actively engulf gold mushroom-shaped microelectrodes (gMμE) that protrude from a flat substrate,
    • (b) the generation of high Rseal between the cell’s membrane and the engulfed gMμE, and
    • (c) the increased junctional membrane conductance.
  • Functionalized the Au mushrooms with an RGD-based peptide
    • RGD is an extracellular matrix binding site on fibronectin, which mediates it's interaction with integrin, a cell surface receptor; it is thought that other elements of fibronectin regulate specificity with its receptor. PMID-2418980

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ref: Wyler-1980.08 tags: Wyler operant conditioning fast slow pyramidal tract neurons BMI date: 01-07-2012 22:09 gmt revision:3 [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-7409057[0] Operant control of precentral neurons: comparison of fast and slow pyramidal tract neurons.

  • Slow PTN (neurons with antidromic latency > 2ms) are pratically all well controlled in his operant-conditioning task;
  • Fast (< 2ms, mean 1.2ms latency) have a more highly variable firing rates and ISIs.
  • "[I]t appears that the majority of error from fast PT cells was generated by ISIS less than 30 ms, whereas the majority of error for slow PT cells was represented in ISIS greater than 60 ms."
    • Ok, trivial observation, but still interesting.

____References____

[0] Wyler AR, Burchiel KJ, Robbins CA, Operant control of precentral neurons: comparison of fast and slow pyramidal tract neurons.Exp Neurol 69:2, 430-3 (1980 Aug)

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ref: Nicolelis-1993 tags: neurons somatosensory nicolelis rats thalamus date: 01-03-2012 23:30 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

from the Scientific American:

  • blocking (single?) neuron activity in S1 cortex affects the responses of VPM neurons in the thalamus - indicating that descending feedback signals in the cortex to the VPM could have a major role in modulating the ascending information.
  • if you implant a cuff electrode aroung the trigeminal nerve, the evoked responses in S1 and VPM are dependent on the behavioral state of the animal (of course!). this effect is so pronounced that, when the rats were not 'paying attention', only the first stimulus of a series evoked a response; when the rat was whisking, stimulation was faithfully reported.

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ref: Fetz-2000.12 tags: motor control spinal neurons interneurons movement primitives Fetz review tuning date: 01-03-2012 23:08 gmt revision:4 [3] [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-11240278[0] Functions of mammalian spinal interneurons during movement

  • this issue of current opinion in neuro has many reviews of motor control
  • points out that the Bizzi results (they microstimulated & observed a force-field-primitive type organization)
    • others have found that this may be a consequence of decerebration + the structure of the biomechanical groupings of muscles. (see 'update').
  • intraspinal electrodes in the cat provide a secure and reliable method of eliciting forces and movements.
  • CM (corticomotor) cells more often represent synergistic groups of muscles, whereas premotor spinal interneurons are organized to target specific muscles.
    • CMs are therefore more strictly recruited for particular movements.
  • interneurons (IN) are, of course, arrayed in such a way so that antagonist and agonist muscles cross-inhibit eachother (for efficiency)
    • however, we are still able to control the endpoint impedance of the arm - how?
  • spinal interneurons modulate activity during wait period prior to movement!
    • there might be substantial interaction between the cortex and spinal cord.. subjects asked to imagine pressing a foot pedal showed enhanced reflexes in the involved soleus muscle.
      • cognitive priming?
  • spinal reflexes are strongly modulated in movement.

____References____

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ref: Grutzendler-2011.09 tags: two-photon imaging in-vivo neurons recording dendrites spines date: 01-03-2012 01:02 gmt revision:3 [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-21880826[0] http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2011/9/pdb.prot065474.full?rss=1

  • Excellent source of information and references. Go CSH!
  • Possible to image up to 400um deep. PMID-12490949[1]
  • People have used TPLSM imaging for years in mice. PMID-19946265[2]

____References____

[0] Grutzendler J, Yang G, Pan F, Parkhurst CN, Gan WB, Transcranial two-photon imaging of the living mouse brain.Cold Spring Harb Protoc 2011:9, no Pages (2011 Sep 1)
[1] Grutzendler J, Kasthuri N, Gan WB, Long-term dendritic spine stability in the adult cortex.Nature 420:6917, 812-6 (2002 Dec 19-26)
[2] Yang G, Pan F, Gan WB, Stably maintained dendritic spines are associated with lifelong memories.Nature 462:7275, 920-4 (2009 Dec 17)

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ref: Tehovnik-2006.08 tags: ICMS cortical microstimulation pyramidal neurons date: 12-20-2011 06:08 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

PMID-16835359[0] Direct and indirect activation of cortical neurons by electrical microstimulation.

  • looked at ICMS via single-cell recording, behavior, and fMRI.
  • These properties suggested that microstimulation activates the most excitable elements in cortex, that is, by and large the fibers of the pyramidal cells.
    • this is a useful result to perhaps reference..

____References____

[0] Tehovnik EJ, Tolias AS, Sultan F, Slocum WM, Logothetis NK, Direct and indirect activation of cortical neurons by electrical microstimulation.J Neurophysiol 96:2, 512-21 (2006 Aug)

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ref: Wyler-1980.08 tags: Wyler Lange Robbins operant conditioning motor neurons contralateral bilateral specificity monkeys motor learning date: 12-06-2011 06:36 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

PMID-6772272 Operant control of precentral neurons: bilateral single unit conditioning.

  • Used bilateral electrodes.
  • One neuron operantly conditioned, one not.
  • Switched the conditioned / controlled after performance was attained.
  • Evidence: neurons can be individually tuned, and operant control is not the result of spinal-level conditioning or change.
    • It is not the result of increased attention or increased muscle tone.
  • Simple question, simple paper.

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ref: Allman-2001.05 tags: anterior cingulate dopamine spindle neurons review date: 12-15-2008 04:13 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

PMID-11411161[0] The anterior cingulate cortex. The evolution of an interface between emotion and cognition

  • The ACC receives one of the riches dopaminergic innervations of any cortical area.
  • The ACC contains morphologically distinct spindle cells, a recent advance in hominid evolution. (Appears that they are also present in monkeys, since people can perform experiments there too).
  • A large body of EEG data indicates that the anterior cingulate is the source of a 4- to 7-Hertz signal present when the subject is performing a task requiring focused concentration.24 The amplitude of this signal increases with task difficulty.25 When the subject is restless and anxious, the signal is reduced or eliminated; when the anxiety is relieved with drugs, the signal is restored.

____References____

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ref: RAzsa-2008.01 tags: nAChR nicotinic acetylchoine receptor interneurons backpropagating LTP hippocampus date: 10-08-2008 17:37 gmt revision:0 [head]

PMID-18215234[0] Dendritic nicotinic receptors modulate backpropagating action potentials and long-term plasticity of interneurons.

  • idea: nAChRs are highly permeable to Ca+2, LTP is dependent on Ca2+, so they tested nAChR -> LTP in interneurons of rat hippocampus using whole-cell electrophysiology and 2-photon imaging.
  • Here we show that precisely timed activation of dendritic α7-nAChRs boosts the induction of LTP by excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and synaptically triggered dendritic Ca2+ transients.
  • suggest that this rapid (ionotropic) method of memory encoding and retrieval via LTP/D facilitated by acetylcholine.
  • I haven't read much of the article, since it is much out of my field of experience.

____References____

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ref: Maravita-2004.02 tags: tool use monkey mirror neurons response learning date: 09-24-2008 17:02 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

PMID-15588812[0] Tools for the body schema

See also PMID-8951846[1] Coding of modified body schema during tool use by macaque postcentral neurones.

____References____

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ref: Sabelli-1976.08 tags: anatomy of the spinal cord interneurons pyramidal tract commissure reflexes date: 04-23-2007 05:12 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

Anatomy of the spinal cord

  • wow! detailed!!
  • the spinal cord is remarkably complex (of course, considering how old it is and how important it is for structuring movement and locomotion..well..most animals)
  • there is a lot of well-organized circuitry in the spinal cord mediating adaptive phenomena and reflexes like the clasp knife reflex (upper motoneuron disease where the resistance to flexion abruptly melts away when the joint is fully flexed)

____References____

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ref: Ferrari-2005.02 tags: tool use monkey neural response leaning mirror neurons F5 date: 04-03-2007 22:44 gmt revision:1 [0] [head]

PMID-15811234[] Mirror Neurons Responding to Observation of Actions Made with Tools in Monkey Ventral Premotor Cortex

  • respond when the monkey sees a human using a tool!

____References____

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ref: notes-0 tags: insular cortex anterior cingulate spindle neurons date: 0-0-2007 0:0 revision:0 [head]

spindle neurons are found in the insular cortex as well as the anterior cingulate cortex, but only, apparently, in great apes. Activity in the insular cortex has been found to be correlated to feeling empathy.

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ref: notes, bookmark-0 tags: spikes action_potentials neurons subthreshold depolarization c.elegans date: 0-0-2006 0:0 revision:0 [head]

"Millisecond-timescale, genetically targeted optical control of neural activity" http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/v8/n9/full/nn1525.html

what they did:

  • expressed ChR2 receptor in cultured hippocampal neurons.
  • ChR2 is a rapidly-gated light-sensitive cation channel recently isolated from unicellular green alga
  • cells were transfected via lentivirus
  • caused spiking in cells by exposing them to 5-15ms flashes of blue light.
  • stimulation was reliable to 30hz
  • stimulated spikes had low jitter - 2ms or so.
  • light stimulation protocol was robust across different neurons.
  • expression of the light-gated channel did not alter the properties of the neurons or their health etc.
  • they think it might be applicable to in-vivo mamalian studies!
  • Subthreshold!
    • for many cellular and systems neuroscience processes subthreshold depolarizations convey physiologically significant information.
    • the neurons in c.elegans do not spike!
    • subthreshold depolarizations are potent for activating synapes-to-nucleus signaling
    • the relative timing of subthreshold and suprathreshold depolarizations can determine the direction of synaptic plasticity.
    • subthreshold depolarizations operate in the more linear regime of membrane voltage