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ref: -0 tags: 3D SHOT Alan Hillel Waller 2p photon holography date: 05-31-2019 22:19 gmt revision:4 [3] [2] [1] [0] [head]

PMID-29089483 Three-dimensional scanless holographic optogenetics with temporal focusing (3D-SHOT).

  • P├ęgard NC1,2, Mardinly AR1, Oldenburg IA1, Sridharan S1, Waller L2, Adesnik H3,4
  • Combines computer-generated holography and temporal focusing for single-shot (no scanning) two-photon photo-activation of opsins.
  • The beam intensity profile determines the dimensions of the custom temporal focusing pattern (CTFP), while phase, a previously unused degree of freedom, is engineered to make 3D holograph and temporal focusing compatible.
  • "To ensure good diffraction efficiency of all spectral components by the SLM, we used a lens Lc to apply a small spherical phase pattern. The focal length was adjusted so that each spectral component of the pulse spans across the short axis of the SLM in the Fourier domain".
    • That is, they spatially and temporally defocus the pulse to better fill the SLM. The short axis of the SLM in this case is Y, per supplementary figure 2.
  • The image of the diffraction grating determines the plane of temporal focusing (with lenses L1 and L2); there is a secondary geometric focus due to Lc behind the temporal plane, which serves as an aberration.
  • The diffraction grating causes the temporal pattern to scan to produce a semi-spherical stimulated area ('disc').
  • Rather than creating a custom 3D holographic shape for each neuron, the SLM is after the diffraction grating -- it imposes phase and space modulation to the CTFP, effectively convolving it with a holograph of a cloud of points & hence replicating at each point.

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ref: -0 tags: neural imaging recording shot noise redshirt date: 01-02-2013 02:20 gmt revision:0 [head]

http://www.redshirtimaging.com/redshirt_neuro/neuro_lib_2.htm

  • Shot Noise: The limit of accuracy with which light can be measured is set by the shot noise arising from the statistical nature of photon emission and detection.
    • If an ideal light source emits an average of N photons/ms, the RMS deviation in the number emitted is N\sqrt N .
    • At high intensities this ratio NN\frac{N}{\sqrt N} is large and thus small changes in intensity can be detected. For example, at 10^10 photons/ms a fractional intensity change of 0.1% can be measured with a signal-to-noise ratio of 100.
    • On the other hand, at low intensities this ratio of intensity divided by noise is small and only large signals can be detected. For example, at 10^4 photons/msec the same fractional change of 0.1% can be measured with a signal-to-noise ratio of 1 only after averaging 100 trials.

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ref: work-0 tags: kicadocaml zbuffer comparison picture screenshot date: 03-03-2010 16:38 gmt revision:4 [3] [2] [1] [0] [head]

Simple illustration of Kicadocaml with Z buffering enabled:

and disabled:

I normally use it with Z buffering enabled, but turn it off if, say, I want to clearly see all the track intersections, especially co-linear tracks or zero length tracks. (Probably I should write something to merge and remove these automatically.) Note that in either case, tracks and modules are rendered back-to-front, which effects a Z-sorting of sorts; it is the GPUs Z buffer that is enabled/disabled here.

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ref: -0 tags: kicadocaml screenshot picture date: 03-03-2010 05:53 gmt revision:2 [1] [0] [head]

Aint she pretty?

More shots of the completed board (click for full resolution image):

  • whole thing, all layers.

  • Just the headstage, top and inner layer 2 only

  • Just the headstage, bottom and inner layers 2, 3 and 4.