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ref: -0 tags: sparse coding reference list olshausen field date: 03-11-2019 21:59 gmt revision:3 [2] [1] [0] [head]

This was compiled from searching papers which referenced Olhausen and Field 1996 PMID-8637596 Emergence of simple-cell receptive field properties by learning a sparse code for natural images.

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ref: -2004 tags: Olshausen sparse coding review date: 03-08-2019 07:02 gmt revision:0 [head]

PMID-15321069 Sparse coding of sensory inputs

  • Classic review, Olshausen and Field. 15 years old now!
  • Note the sparsity here is in neuronal activation, not synaptic activity (though one should follow the other).
  • References Lewicki's auditory studies, Efficient coding of natural sounds 2002; properties of early auditory neurons are well suited for producing a sparse independent code.
    • Studies have found near binary encoding of stimuli in rat auditory cortex -- e.g. one spike per noise.
  • Suggests that overcomplete representations (e.g. where there are more 'second layer' neurons than inputs or pixels) are useful for flattening manifolds in the input space, making feature extraction easier.
    • But then you have an under-determined problem, where presumably sparsity metrics step in to restrict the actual coding space. Authors mention that this could lead to degeneracy.
    • Example is the early visual cortex, where axons to higher layers exceed those from the LGN by a factor of 25. Which, they say, may be a compromise between over-representation and degeneracy.
  • Sparse coding is a necessity from an energy standpoint -- only one in 50 neurons can be active at any given time.
  • Sparsity increases when classical receptive field stimuli in V1 is expanded with a real-world-statistics surround. (Gallant 2002).